Pronunciation Rules_20110928

Pronunciation Rules_20110928 - LTKO 1A Pronunciation Rules...

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Unformatted text preview: LTKO 1A Pronunciation Rules 임난희 2010년 9월 28일 Pronunciation Rules Rule 1: Resyllabification When a syllable-final consonant is followed without pause by a vowel in the following syllable, that consonant is carried over to the following syllable to function as its initial consonant in pronunciation. The following syllable may be part of a suffix or another word. This linking of syllable-final consonant to following syllable in pronunciation is technically called “resyllabification.” 보기 1. (Example) (1) 책을 펴세요 [채글 펴세요] (2) 알았어요 [아라써요] 연습 1. (Practice) Practice with a partner and present the findings to class: (1) 질문이 있어요 (2) 읽어 보세요 (4) 맞았어요 (3) 잘 들으세요 (6) 천만에요 (5) 앉으세요 Rule 2. Syllable-final closure (unrelease) At the end of a word or before a consonant, all Korean consonants are pronounced with closure of the speech organs involved, that is, without releasing air. As a result, sound changes occur in consonants in word-final or pre-consonantal position. The following changes occur in the same positions. Lips Gum ridge and hard palate Soft palate 보기 2. (Example) (1) 꽃은 [꼬츤] (4) 잎이 [이피] ㅂ, ㅍ ㄷ , ㅌ , ㅅ, ㅆ, ㅈ , ㅊ ㄱ, ㅋ, ㄲ (2) 꽃 [꼳] (5) 잎 [입] → ㅂ (p) → ㄷ (t) → ㄱ (k) (3) 꽃도 [꼬또] (6) 잎과 [입꽈] 연습 2. (Practice) Practice with a partner and present the findings to class: (1) 같아요 같지요 옷 (2) 옷을 (3) 갔어 갔다 옷도 갔지 1 LTKO 1A Pronunciation Rules 임난희 2010년 9월 28일 (4) 낮에 (5) 빛이 (6) 낚아요 밤낮 빛 낚시 낮과 빛조차 낚다가 * The only consonant sounds that occur at the end of a word or before another consonant are the seven simple consonants ㅂ p, ㄷ t, ㄱ k, ㅁ m, ㄴ n, ㅇ ng, and ㄹ l. Rule 3. Nasal assimilation All plosive and fricative consonants become the corresponding nasal consonants before a nasal consonant (ㅁ, ㄴ), as indicated bellow. Notice that even ㅎ is included in the change. ㅂ, ㅍ ㄷ, ㅌ, ㅅ, ㅆ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅎ ㄱ, ㅋ, ㄲ → → → ㅁm ㄴn ㅇ ng 보기 3. (Example) (1) 입 + 만 (ㅂ + ㅁ) = 입만 [임만] (ㅁ + ㅁ) (2) 몇 + 년 (ㅊ + ㄴ) = 몇 년 [면 년] (ㄴ + ㄴ) 연습 3. (Practice) Practice with a partner and present the findings to class: (1) 없나요 (2) 받는다 (3) 끝나다 (4) 낳는다 Rule 4. ㄴ to ㄹ assimilation 1. When ㄹ and ㄴ come together, the ㄴsound is usually replaced by the ㄹ sound. 2. When ㄹ is followed by the vowel i or the semivowel y in some compound words, another ㄹ is inserted between them. 보기 4. (Example) (1) 칠 + 년 (ㄹ + ㄴ) = 칠 년 [칠련] (ㄹ + ㄹ) (2) 물 + 약 (ㄹ + ㅇ) = 물약 [물략] (ㄹ + ㄹ) 연습 4. (Practice) Practice with a partner and present the findings to class: (1) 진리 (2) 신라 (3) 달나라 2 (4) 달님 LTKO 1A Pronunciation Rules 임난희 2010년 9월 28일 Rule 5. Tensification When a plain plosive consonant (ㅂ,ㄷ,ㅈ,ㄱ) or the fricative consonant ㅅ is preceded by a plosive or fricative consonant, it is reinforced to become a corresponding tense consonant. 보기 5. (Example) (1) 학 + 생 (ㄱ + ㅅ) = 학생 [학쌩] (ㄱ + ㅆ) (2) 없 + 다 (ㅂ + ㄷ) = 없다 [업따] (ㅂ + ㄸ) 연습 5. (Practice) Practice with a partner and present the findings to class: (1) 몇 과 (2) 식당 (5) 꽃집 (4) 숙제 (3) 학교 (6) 책상 * Tensification also occurs in compound nouns. [여름 빵학] (1) 여름 방학 (summer vacation) (2) 봄비 (spring rain) [봄삐] Rule 6. Aspiration and ㅎ weakening The fricative consonant ㅎ is produced in the throat, soft palate, hard palate, or lips depending on the following vowel. When it is followed or preceded by a plain plosive consonant (ㅂ, ㄷ, ㅈ, ㄱ) it merges with the consonant to produce the corresponding aspirate consonant (ㅍ p’, ㅌ t’, ㅊ ch’, ㅋ k’,) ㅎ ㅂ,ㄷ,ㅈ,ㄱ + + ㅂ,ㄷ,ㅈ,ㄱ ㅎ = = ㅍ, ㅌ, ㅊ, ㅋ ㅍ, ㅌ, ㅊ, ㅋ 보기 6. (Example) (1) 좋 + 다 (ㅎ + ㄷ) = 좋다 [조타] (2) 닫 + 히 + 다 (ㄷ + ㅎ) = 닫히다 [다치다] 연습 6. (Practice) Practice with a partner and present the findings to class: (1) 좋고 (2) 입학 (3) 많다 (4) 좋지 않다 * Between two voiced sounds (vowels, nasals, or ㄹ consonants), ㅎ tends to become silent in casual speech, as in 좋아요[조아요] and 말한다[마란다]. 3 LTKO 1A Pronunciation Rules 임난희 2010년 9월 28일 연습 7. (Practice) Practice with a partner and present the findings to class: (1) 전화 (2) 여름 방학 (3) 사랑한다 (4) 안녕하세요 Rule 7. Double consonant reduction When a syllable block ends in a double consonant letter, the second consonant is carried over to the following vowel-initial syllable in pronunciation if this syllable does not have an initial consonant, as in 값이[갑씨]. However, one of the two consonants becomes silent at the end of a word or before a consonant, as in 값[갑] and 값도[갑또]. Normally the silent consonant is the second one, but there are exceptions. 보기 7. (Example) (1) 여 + 덟 (ㄼ) = 여덟 [여덜] (ㄹ) (2) 없 + 다 (ㅄ) = 없다 [업따] (ㅂ) 연습 8. (Practice) Practice with a partner and present the findings to class: (1) 책을 읽습니다 (2) 질문이 없습니다 (3) 괜찮습니다 (4) 앉겠어요. Rule 8. Palatalization When a word ending in ㄷ or ㅌ is followed by a suffix beginning with the vowel i or the semivowel y (whether ㅎ intervenes or not), the ㄷand ㅌ are pronounced ㅈ and ㅊ. 보기 8. (Example) (1) 닫 + 혀 + 요 (ㄷ + semivowel y) = 닫혀요 [다쳐요] (2) 붙 + 이 + 다 (ㅌ + vowel i) = 붙이다 [부치다] 연습 9. (Practice) Practice with a partner and present the findings to class: (1) 붙어요 붙여요 (2) 다 같아요 다 같이 가요 밑이 (3) 밑에 4 LTKO 1A Pronunciation Rules 임난희 2010년 9월 28일 Rule 9. Place assimilation 1. In casual speech, [ㄷ] is optionally pronounced [ㅂ] before ㅂ or ㅃ and as [ㄱ] before ㄱ or ㄲ. 2. [ㄴ] is optionally pronounced [ㅁ] before ㅂ, ㅃ, or ㅁ and [ㅇ] before ㄱ or ㄲ. 보기 9. (Example) (1) 꽃 + 병 (ㅊ + ㅂ) = 꽃병 [꼳뼝] (ㄷ + ㅃ) [꼽뼝] (ㅂ + ㅃ) (2) 빗 + 물 (ㅅ + ㅁ) = 빗물 [빈물] (ㄴ + ㅁ) [빔물] (ㅁ + ㅁ) 한 + 강 (ㄴ + ㄱ) = 한강 [한강] or [항강] (ㅇ + ㄱ) 연습 10. (Practice) Practice with a partner and present the findings to class: (1) 옷감 (2) 신문 (4) 한국어 (3) 옷빨래 (5) 젖병 (6) 눈꺼풀 (7) 닫고 (8) 꽃무늬 (10) 신발 (9) 밭갈이 5 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2011 for the course LTKO 1a taught by Professor Lee during the Fall '11 term at UCSD.

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Pronunciation Rules_20110928 - LTKO 1A Pronunciation Rules...

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