2010-02-22 Chapter 11 Metal Apps and Processing

2010-02-22 Chapter 11 Metal Apps and Processing - Chapter...

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Chapter 11 - 1 ISSUES TO ADDRESS. .. How are metal alloys classified and how are they used? What are some of the common fabrication techniques? How do properties vary throughout a piece of material that has been quenched, for example? How can properties be modified by post heat treatment? Chapter 11: Metal Alloys Applications and Processing
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Chapter 11 - 2 Adapted from Fig. 9.24, Callister 7e . (Fig. 9.24 adapted from Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams , 2nd ed., Vol. 1, T.B. Massalski (Ed.-in-Chief), ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1990.) Adapted from Fig. 11.1, Callister 7e . Taxonomy of Metals Metal Alloys Steels Ferrous Nonferrous Cast Irons Cu Al Mg Ti <1.4wt%C 3-4.5wt%C Steels <1.4 wt% C Cast Irons 3-4.5 wt% C Fe 3 C cementite 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.7 L γ austenite γ + L γ +Fe 3 C α ferrite α +Fe 3 C α + γ L +Fe 3 C δ (Fe) C o , wt% C Eutectic: Eutectoid: 0.76 4.30 727°C 1148°C T (°C) microstructure: ferrite, graphite cementite
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Chapter 11 - 3 Based on data provided in Tables 11.1(b), 11.2(b), 11.3, and 11.4, Callister 7e . Steels Low Alloy High Alloy low carbon <0.25 wt% C Med carbon 0.25-0.6 wt% C high carbon 0.6-1.4 wt% C Uses auto struc. sheet bridges towers press. vessels crank shafts bolts hammers blades pistons gears wear applic. wear applic. drills saws dies high T applic. turbines furnaces V. corros. resistant Example 1010 4310 1040 4340 1095 4190 304 Additions none Cr,V Ni, Mo none Cr, Ni Mo none Cr, V, Mo, W Cr, Ni, Mo plain HSLA plain heat treatable plain tool austenitic stainless Name Hardenability 0 + + ++ ++ +++ 0 TS - 0 + ++ + ++ 0 EL + + 0 - - -- ++ increasing strength, cost, decreasing ductility Stainless steel contains at least 11 wt% Cr TS = tensile strength EL = elongation
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Chapter 11 - 4 Alloying elements There are many different elements that are added in steel to improve: Machinability (S) Corrosion resistance (Cr) Wear resistance (V) Creep resistance (Mo, W) Ductility and toughness (Ni) Hardenablility (Cr, V, Mo) These elements are called alloying elements. These elements include Chromium, Vanadium, Nickel, Molybdenum, Tungsten, Sulfur, etc. For more information on effect of alloying elements read at following link: Encyclopedia of metallurgy. http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Campus/8262/htdocs/steels/allst4.html#s
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Chapter 11 - 5 Refinement of Steel from Ore Iron Ore Coke Limestone 3CO + Fe 2 O 3 2Fe +3CO 2 C + O CO 2 CO 2 + C 2CO CaCO CaO+CO 2 CaO + SiO 2 + Al 2 O 3 slag purification reduction of iron ore to metal heat generation Molten iron BLAST FURNACE slag air layers of coke and iron ore gas refractory vessel
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Chapter 11 - 6 Ferrous Alloys Nomenclature for AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) & SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers): 10xx Plain Carbon Steels 11xx Plain Carbon Steels (resulfurized for machinability) 15xx Mn (10 ~ 20%) 40xx Mo (0.20 ~ 0.30%) 43xx Ni (1.65 - 2.00%), Cr (0.4 - 0.90%), Mo (0.2 - 0.3%) 44xx Mo (0.5%)
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2011 for the course PHYSICS 1410 taught by Professor Falco during the Spring '08 term at Texas State.

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2010-02-22 Chapter 11 Metal Apps and Processing - Chapter...

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