PHIL Notes-1 - PHIL- 1310 June 8, 2010 Reasoning process:...

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PHIL- 1310 June 8, 2010 Reasoning process: I. Induction - conclusions are probable A. Even in a well-formed inductive argument, the conclusion is only probable B. We can have better or worse. They are described as strong or weak ; these are subjective terms; there are no rules, it depends on the case C. Two predominant forms: a. Argument from uniformity - begin with examples (test cases, observed data) then find similarities among the examples; then you infer that this uniformity applies to unknown cases I have a headache, every other time I’ve had a headache I’ve taken Tylenol and the pain has gone away, I’ll take Tylenol b. Argument from Analogy - based on what is true of one, I inductively reason on the basis of that similarity that it will hold true for the unknown case; what I know of one, is likely to be true of the other Strength of the argument is based on the degree of similarity between the cases c. Inductive arguments are either one or a combination of both of the above arguments II. Deduction - conclusions are certain; but the certainty is part of the premises; some will argue that Deductive reasoning is powerless because the conclusion is implicit in the premises, but where do the premises come from: direct experience - which is uncertain; inductive reasoning - which is uncertain; because of this, some would assert that the whole world is uncertain A. If an arguments conclusion is 99.9% certain, then it is not a deductive argument. B. If it is a real deductive argument, we refer to it as valid C. An invalid deductive argument is one that is presented as real, but is not, a plausible fake. D. It is possible to have a valid deductive argument where everything is false; because the argument can be valid, but the conclusion and premises can be wrong E. Validity and Invalidity describe arguments; truth and fallacy describe statements
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F. If one of the premises is found to be false, then the argument was invalid all along G. Can also have a valid argument if all the premises are false, but the conclusion is true H. You cannot have a valid argument in which the premises are true, but the conclusion is false I. Sound Argument - is a valid deductive argument in which all of the premises are true, and the conclusion is also true. (A valid argument in which all of the premises are true) J. Formal Logic - the validity of an argument is based on the form and not the K. Stoics - they took all logical reasoning and reduced it down to four operations; they were moderate, and did not take it down to one; statements are the atom of deductive reasoning; once we get statements, we assign them symbols and forget the content; only one rule- I assign a letter to a statement, and then that letter cannot be assigned to anything else in the argument (p, q, r, etc) the same statement can have different letters, but not the other way around L. Prevalent forms of Deductive Arguments: a. Negation: ~P: it is not the case that b. And: p • q, to be true, both parts must be true
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2011 for the course PHYSICS 1410 taught by Professor Falco during the Spring '08 term at Texas State.

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PHIL Notes-1 - PHIL- 1310 June 8, 2010 Reasoning process:...

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