1840Review_001 - NATS 1840 Course Review Studying Use the...

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NATS 1840 Course Review Studying Use the lecture summaries to get the basic important ideas Look for lists of multiple points that can be the basis of a good short answer or multiple choice questions Broad themes of the course : 1) The contributions of science and technology to environmental knowledge (science tells us how we impact the environment) and environmental harm (through industry, processes and products, scope and scale of impact increased due to science). 2) The economic dimension of environmental issues, and how scientific management of the natural world has been co-opted by industry and frequently led to disaster. (German and Canadian forestry, Indian water management, pesticides) 3) All technologies have some environmental cost (hydro dams) 4) Human activity in the environment has led to damage at all levels of technological development. (large mammal extinctions, Dutch hydraulic engineering) 5) Water management has been key to the political and economic development of many civilizations, right up to present day. (Chinese, Dutch, Indian and Canadian hydrological engineering) 6) Scientific advances allowed the exploitation of the New World by European powers through the development of astronomy and navigation. 7) Commerce has contributed to scientific knowledge in the form of experience of objects and in the demand for improved processes and products 8) Global trade had existed since at least the 15 th century, and it has driven demand for natural products that has led to monopolies, wars, slavery and environmental degradation. 9) There have been many periods of population expansion, in the ancient civilizations thanks to hydrological engineering, in the Medieval period due to innovations in farming (equipment, horses), in early modern period thanks to cash crops and colonization, and in the 19th and 20th century thanks to medicine and mass production of food (pesticides, fertilizers) Population expansion increases environmental impacts. 10) Social fixes and technological fixes are different, most solutions have a mix of both, and they are difficult for different reasons. 11) Both the state and the private sector have mismanaged the environment, but the state appears to have a greater interest in long term planning and conservation. 12) Turning nature into a commercial resource has proven difficult (Indian water
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1840Review_001 - NATS 1840 Course Review Studying Use the...

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