nats 1840 lecture 2

nats 1840 lecture 2 - NATS 1840 Lecture 2 - Science,...

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NATS 1840 Lecture 2 - Science, Technology and China - Human civilization moved from hunting and gathering to agriculture approximately 10000 years ago - Agriculture involved the growing of crops and the domestication of animals - Eventually artificial irrigation was developed, leading to a larger food surplus, higher populations, and the need to coordinate these populations through some form of government o This is also known as the “hydrological hypothesis” that civilization arose from the development of large-scale irrigation agriculture and the population increase associated with it o Large scale irrigation agriculture requires centralized coordination to operate the irrigation and to manage, store and distribute the surplus, thus government may have arisen out of this innovation - Urbanization led to the division of labour, with more and more people taking up specialized jobs outside of agriculture - It also led to the creation of cities, where agriculture was not the primary occupation, but instead administration, crafts, trade and labour dominated - Thus, in an ironic twist, the development of large scale agriculture led to urbanization - Priests were the first administrative and ruling classes in society, in charge of the harvests and their surplus - Urbanization also saw class differentiation, with slaves, labourers and citizens with wealth - In order to better understand how humans have impacted the environment, we will go back to consider some of the early civilizations and the development of science and technology within those civilizations - In our first lecture we saw how early hunter-gatherers could have a serious environmental impact, the next stage is the development of civilization and large
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2011 for the course NATS 1800 taught by Professor Jfdksoa during the Spring '11 term at York University.

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nats 1840 lecture 2 - NATS 1840 Lecture 2 - Science,...

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