NATS 1840F - Lecture 10

NATS 1840F - Lecture 10 - NATS 1840 Lecture 13 Science and...

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NATS 1840 Lecture 13 – Science and Engineering In Industry - 18 th century shift from craft production to manufacturing was directed by science and engineers with scientific training - How did science contribute to industry (electrical and chemical primarily considered) Noble’s Analysis of Science and Industry - By late 19 th / early 20 th century, new products and new production methods, greater efficiencies - In 19 th century more interest in theoretical science, less in applied science, this changed as century progressed - Capitalists heard about science from publications and university contacts, invested in science at universities and R+D laboratories, goal was profit and increased efficiency - Science based industry in US started with chemistry and physics (electricity) in 19 th century - Scientific R+D long and expensive, required excess capital: o Traditional manufacturing profits o Financial speculation o Industrial consolidation (vertical integration) - Industrial innovation beyond resources of individual entrepreneur by end of the 19 th century - Family owned industries gone, large corporate organizations appeared, diverse products, tendency to consolidate - 1920’s: 500+ mergers in chemical & electrical industries - A small number of large companies emerged as dominant from these mergers: Dow, Union Carbide, Dupont - Each of these companies had a wide range of products: o Union Carbide: carbon for electrical applications, new alloys for industry, oxygen extraction from air for oxyacetylene, liquid gas, bakelite and plastics o Dupont produced explosives, gasoline, and automobile applications - Science needed to produce variety of applications,
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