NATS 1840F - Lecture 11

NATS 1840F - Lecture 11 - NATS 1840 Lecture 14 The...

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NATS 1840 – Lecture 14 – The Automobile - The automobile is pervasive & integrated in North America - Pervasive: millions of automobiles owned, thousands being produced - Integrated: birth and death occur in cars, as well as conception, work, eating, we do almost everything we do elsewhere in cars - technology part of the environment, analogy to tree - Cars have been around since before most of us born - There are some restrictions on use: licensing and cost of operation - Cars are intertwined with pop culture, North American values, they are indicators of individual freedom and economic prosperity, sign of adulthood - The motor vehicle altered urbanization patterns, further expansion reinforced car Current Concerns about The Automobile - Internal combustion engines burn gasoline, producing greenhouse gasses - The scale of automobile use, the sheer number of cars is a significant environmental issue, multiplies environmental harm - urban car exhaust a significant environmental and health hazard - The Kyoto accord established the reduction of greenhouse gas to 6% below 1991 levels - Reducing car emissions would help meet targets, reduce total number of cars, or make individual cars less polluting. - Hybrid cars now available, electric cars are soon promised - Changing design of car to solve problem is “technological fix” - Changing the way cars are used (carpooling) is social fix Kirsch and the Electric Car - Competition between electric, gas & steam cars at turn of century - 1898 a New York Sun article stated that, At that busy corner, Grand Street and the Bowery, there may be seen cars propelled by five different methods of
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propulsion – by steam, by cable, by underground trolley, by storage battery and by horses. [Kirsch, 11] - No mention of internal combustion cars, did exist at the time - 1885 Gottlieb Daimler & Carl Benz independently built car engines that ran on liquid benzene - 1887, Rudolph Diesel added compressed fuel injection - Commercial electric and steam cars predated gasoline powered cars - First electric car in 1894, electric cabs in NY in 1897 Steam, Electricity and Internal Combustion - By turn of century, steam power was well developed: - at that stage there was 150 years experience with steam power through steam engines & trains, thermodynamics was a well developed science - Electrical technology: electromagnetic theory, electric trams,
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NATS 1840F - Lecture 11 - NATS 1840 Lecture 14 The...

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