(c)The phenyl and methyl substituents attached to C-2 of malonic acid play no role in the decar-boxylation process.19.12(b)The thermal decarboxylation of b-keto acids resembles that of substituted malonic acids. Thestructure of 2,2-dimethylacetoacetic acid and the equation representing its decarboxylationwere given in the text. The overall process involves the bonding changes shown.19.13(a)Lactic acid (2-hydroxypropanoic acid) is a three-carbon carboxylic acid that bears a hydroxylgroup at C-2.(b)The parent name ethanoic acidtells us that the chain that includes the carboxylic acid func-tion contains only two carbons. A hydroxyl group and a phenyl substituent are present at C-2.
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