(e)Carboxylic acids react with alcohols in the presence of acid catalysts to give esters.(f)Chlorine is introduced at thea-carbon atom of a carboxylic acid. The reaction is catalyzedby a small amount of phosphorus or a phosphorus trihalide and is called the Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky reaction.The a-halo substituent is derived from the halogen used, not from the phosphorus trihalide.(g)In the case, bromine is introduced at the acarbon.(h)a-Halo carboxylic acids are reactive substrates in nucleophilic substitution. Iodide acts as anucleophile to displace bromide from 2-bromopentanoic acid.(i)Aqueous ammonia converts a-halo acids to a-amino acids.(j)Lithium aluminum hydride is a powerful reducing agent and reduces carboxylic acids to pri-mary alcohols.(k)Phenylmagnesium bromide acts as a base to abstract the carboxylic acid proton.CH3CH2CH2CH2CO2MgBrBromomagnesium pentanoate1CH3CH2CH2CH2CO2HPentanoic acidC6H5MgBrPhenylmagnesiumbromide1C6H
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