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Dolbier HW Solutions 460 - 554 CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES...

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( f ) The starting material is a cyclic anhydride. Acid anhydrides react with water to yield two car- boxylic acid functions; when the anhydride is cyclic, a dicarboxylic acid results. ( g ) In dilute sodium hydroxide the anhydride is converted to the disodium salt of the diacid. ( h ) One of the carbonyl groups of the cyclic anhydride is converted to an amide function on reac- tion with ammonia. The other, the one that would become a carboxylic acid group, is con- verted to an ammonium carboxylate salt. ( i ) Acid anhydrides are used as acylating agents in Friedel Crafts reactions. ( j ) The reactant is maleic anhydride; it is a good dienophile in Diels Alder reactions. ( k ) Acid anhydrides react with alcohols to give an ester and a carboxylic acid.
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