2001 June QP - RECOGNISING ACHIEVEM ENT OXFORD CAMBRIDGE...

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Unformatted text preview: RECOGNISING ACHIEVEM ENT OXFORD CAMBRIDGE AND RSA EXAMINATIONS Advanced Subsidiary GCE BIOLOGY ‘ 2802 Human Health and Disease Friday 15 JUNE 2001 Morning 1 hour 30 minutes Candidates answer on the question paper. Additional materials: Electronic calculator Ruler (cm/mm) Candidate Candidate Name Centre Number Number mm TIME 1 hour 30 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES 0 Write your name in the space above. 0 Write your Centre number and Candidate number in the boxes above. 0 Answer all the questions. 0 Write your answers, in blue or black ink, in the spaces on the question paper. 0 Read each question carefully and make sure you know what you have to do before starting your answer. INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES o The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question. 0 The total number of marks for this paper is 90. 0 You will be awarded marks for the quality of written communication where an answer requires a piece of extended writing. 0 You may use an electronic calculator. 0 You are advised to show all the steps in calculations. FOR EXAMINEH’S USE This question paper consists of 15 printed pages and 1 blank page. l SB (NH/CG) $040443 l o OCR 2001 Registered Charity Number: 1066969 [Turn over 2 _ For Examiner's _ Use Answer all questions Fig. 1.1 shows a transverse section of a bronchus from the lung of a mammal. , _ g: I «u ' i ‘5. a , >1_q v. . ,y . . ‘ A I v '1 A H V J‘ Fig.1.1 (a) NameAto D. A ..................................................................................................................................... .. B ..................................................................................................................................... .. I C ..................................................................................................................................... .. D ................................................................................................................................. ..[4] (b) Describe how the cells lining the bronchus protect the alveoli from damage. g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n - u . . . . . . . . n n . - n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - u u . n c u n I u - - - - - - u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . - - n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u I u . c . . - . . . . . . u . . .- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . .- 2802 $01 3 There are elastic fibres between the cells lining the gaseous exchange surface in the alveoli. ‘ (c) Describe the function of the elastic fibres in the alveoli. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . - - . . u . . - . . . . . . . - - n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . u . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- . . . . . . - o u . . . u u . . . . . - n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u u . u . . . . u u . u . u . - - - . .- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u - n a - . . . . . . u . . u - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . n . . . . . . - . - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n - - . .- . . . . . . . . . . . . u u . . . . . . u . n u - . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . - - - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . .. .................................................................................................................................... ..[3] Table 1.1 shows some measurements of a person’s breathing. Ventilation rate is the volume of air breathed in during one minute. Table 1.1 tidal volume at rest vital capacity 4 600 cm3 breathing rate at rest 12 breaths per minute 20 000 cm3 min—1 ventilation rate during exercise (d) With reference to Table 1.1, (i) calculate the ventilation rate at rest; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . - - - . . . . - . - . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . .. ............................................................................................................................. ..[2] (iii) state how the person increased their ventilation rate even though their breathing rate remained constant. . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . n . . . u - - - - - o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ............................................................................................................................. ..[1] [Total : 15] 2802 SDI For Examiner's Use [Turn over L————_—————————-—————-—_ 4 K For Examiner's . . . . . U 2 Some athletes find that they recover taster after strenuous exercuse by continumg to exercnse 56 slowly. This is sometimes called ‘warming down’. An investigation was carried out to see if this was due to the removal of lactate from the blood. A cyclist exercised vigorously on an exercise bicycle for six minutes and then rested for 34 minutes. When fully recovered, the same cyclist repeated the procedure, but this time cycled at a slow speed following the six minutes of fast cycling. Blood samples were taken at intervals and analysed for the concentration of lactate. The results are shown in Fig. 2.1. 12 I 11 I". II:- 10 " = 9 III' EEEEE :Eflflfl E}: 8 “In lflIIIIEEEEEEEEEE-l blood lactate 7 ESE}: :3: rest only during concentration/ 6 u :33! :5: recover _3 I al'li ug‘l y mmoldm 5 :- Ia‘ I-EI!=IIIIIIIIIII- 4 H HIRE! E IIIiESlIEII " 3 :1: III i: 2 ll: l" .I 1 ll IIIIIIiIIiIi- .II I I'll-II-IIII-II O III-IIII-I-Ill-I-I-II- 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 4O 45 time/min Fig.2.1 (a) With reference to Fi 9 l (i) describe the changeilin lactate concentration in the blood when the cyclist exercised and then rested during recovery; - . - . u u - - - u . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - n n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - u . - u . . - - . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u - . - . . . u - u . . . . . . . . u . . . . - o - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . - . . .. 2802 $01 5 Examiner’s (ii) explain the changes you have described in (i); ............................................................................................................................. ..[4] (iii) suggest how cycling at slow speed during the 'warming down’ period helps to lower the concentration of lactate in the blood more quickly than resting completely. . . . . . . n - . . . . . . . . - - - - - . . . . . - u . . . u . u . . n u u u u u u I . . u u c - n n . n n . - - n . - - n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . - .- ................................................................................................ Trained athletes can exercise at much higher levels than untrained people before their blood lactate concentration starts to increase. This is due to changes in the cardiovascular system and in muscles. (b) Describe the changes that occur in the cardiovascular system and in muscles during training. cardiovascular system .................................................................................................... .. . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . g n . . . . . . . . . - - - - . . . . . . - - - u . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - . c n . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - .- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . u . . . . . u u - p n u - n r u u . u u . . n . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . u . . - - - - . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . - - . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . - u u . . . . . u . n . n . . . . . . . . . . . . - u - . u u . . - u u . u . . . - u u u . n . . . . . . . I n . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - . . . . . . . u u . . . . . . . . . . . . n . - o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - .- . . . . . . . - - - . . . . . . . - - u . . . . . . u u u . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . - - - . - . . . . . . u - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . u u u n n . . u u I p u - u - - a - u n . . . . . . - - - - n o n u u - - - - n . . . - . u . . u . n . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . - - . u - . . - n . . . . . . . . n a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . - . . . u . . . . . u u n u u u n . u u u . - - u u .- .................................................................................................................................... J [Total : 14] 2802 901 [Turn ever For Use 3 6 (a) Complete the table below to show which of the three statements about disease transmission apply to cholera, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS. Put a tick (J) to show it the statement applies. ‘ causative organism is a bacterium transmission is via drinking water sexually transmitted (b) Suggest two reasons why antibiotics are not suitable for treating all infectious diseases. [3] 1. .................................................................................................................................... .. 2. .................................................................................................................................... .. .................................................................................................................................... ..[2] Tuberculosis is a disease considered to be endemic throughout the world. (c) State the meaning of the term endemic. .................................................................................................................................... ..[1] Table 3.1 shows the estimated number of deaths in 1998 for five diseases in developing countries in South-East Asia and developed countries in Europe. Table 3.1 in South-East Asia in Europe diarrhoeal diseases, 36 .39 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease e.g. chronic bronchitis and emphysema 2802 $01 For Examiner‘s Use 7 ' For Examiners u (d) Explain the advantage of expressing numbers of deaths as per 100 000 of the 59 population. . . . . . - . . . - - - . u - . . - . . n - u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - n u . . . . . . . . - . u u . . . u . . . - - . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .................................................................................................................................... ..[2] (e) With reference to Table 3.1, describe and explain the differences between standards of health in developing countries and developed countries. (In this question, one mark is awarded for the quality of written communication.) . . . . . . - - - - . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . u . . . . . . . - . . u . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . - . . . . u u . . . . . . . . . . n u u . . - . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . - . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - .- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - . . . . . . . . - - n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n - . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . . - . - . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . - u u . . . . - . u . - . . . . . . . . . . n n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . .- . . . . . . . . . . . . . - n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - u - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . - . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n . n . . . . . - . - . . . . . . . - - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . - - - . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . .. . . . . . . - . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . - . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - n - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . u . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . . - . - . . . . . . - . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. [Total : 16] I 2802 301 [Turn over 8 For Examiner's u 4 During an immune response to a bacterial infection many different antibody molecules may 5e be produced. Fig. 4.1 shows the structure of a typical antibody molecule. Fig. 4.1 (a) Name the regions of the antibody molecule labelled P and Q. P ..................................................................................................................................... .. Q ................................................................................................................................ ..[2] Antibodies, like enzymes, are highly specific. This is because they are both proteins. (b) Explain how the protein nature of antibodies allows the production of many different types. n o u - n I - . u - n - . n u . n u u n n I u I . . . n u . n . . . n . u u n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n . u u u . - u u . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - . . . . . . u . . u u - u . . . . . . . . n . u n . . . . . . . . u . . - - . . . . . . . - - - - - .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n . . n . . u n n u u . u u u o u . u c . u u u . o . u u I u . . . . . . . - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - u n I n n . o n a n o u - - u n o - u - n . . . n I n n u u u . u u u . . . . . . . u . n . - u s . . u . . . . . . . . . . . - . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. c . a u - - - n u u u n - u n - u u a - u c u u u I o a n u u u u u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . u n n u u . u u - - u - a - . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . - u u . . . . . . . . u . . - . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u - .- During a bacterial infection, the number of phagocytes in the blood may increase. (c) State where in the body phagocytes are made. .................................................................................................................................... ..[1] 2802 $01 1418 9 ~ For Examiner's . u Fig. 4.2 is a drawing made from an electron micrograph of a phagocyte engulfing some bacteria. 59 A Fig. 4.2 (d) With reference to Fig. 4.2, describe the events that are occurring at A, B, and C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u - - - a n n n - - u u o u u . - u u . . . . u u . . . . . . . . u . . n . g u . u . u . - - - - a . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - u n - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . u . . . . .- .................................................................................................................................... ..[e] (e) Explain how antibodies, such as those shown in Fig.4.1, may help phagocytes engulf bacteria. . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - u u - . - . n n . . u I . a . . . . - u . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- . . . . . . - . . . . . - . - - n - . - . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. [Total : 15] 2802 501 [Turn over 10 Over 40% of the world’s population live in areas where there is a risk of malaria. The disease causes widespread suffering and death especially among children. (a) Name the organism that causes malaria. ........... (b) State two geographical areas of the world where there is a high risk of malaria. . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . - u a . . . u u u u u u n n - - a a - - n c - u n . . . . . - - u u n n n n c . u n . . . . . . . . . . . u c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . u u . . . . - . u u u . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . - - a - - u u n u u . . . . . . . . . . . . u n . n - - - - u . c - . . . . o . . . . . . . u u - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a I n - o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .................................................................................................................................... ..[2] Malaria is transmitted by a vector, the mosquito Anopheles. Fig. 5.1 shows the life cycle of Anopheles. . mated female takes a blood meal adults mate \ female lays eggs in water adult mosquito (c) With reference to Fig.5.1, (i) describe the role of Anopheles in the transmission of malaria; 2802 $01 For Examiner’s Use 11 I ‘ F0/ Examiner‘s Use (ii) outline the biological factors that make malaria a difficult disease to control. ‘ (In this question, one mark is awarded for the quality of written communication.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n . n . . . . . . u . . . . - . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . I . g . . . . - - . . u n I . n . . . u u u . I . n . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I . n n u n . . . u u . u u a . . . . . a - - - u - - . . . . . u . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . u . u n n . . . u . - - - n u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - u . I n u . - . . . u n u n - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . - - . n n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- . . . . . c . . . . . . u - q - u n - . . . . . - - . n . . . . . . . » . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - . . - . . - - n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . u I . u n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . - - n o s n - u . . . . . . . . . .- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . u - - . - . u .- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I . . . . . . .- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . - . - . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . - . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - . . . . . . . u . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . - . . u - . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . .- . . . . . . . . . . - u . - - - . - . . . . . . . - . u u . . . . . . . n 4 . . . . . . . . . - - - - u - . . . . . n - - u - n n . . . . u n . u - - » u o . u u - - - - - - - - - - - - - - n - - a - - - u - - - - - - - - - o u - - - - - - - n n u - n - - - - - I u- ................................................................................................................................ ..[7] [Total : 13] anno cm [TI Irn nvnr 1 2 I For Examiner’s u 6 Tobacco smoke contains over 4 000 different chemicals. Table 6.1 shows the effects of three 59 components of tobacco smoke. Table 6.1 effects on the body deposited in the gaseous exchange system; irritates the lining of the trachea, bronchus and tar bronchioles. nicotine absorbed into the blood; stimulates central nervous system to increase heart rate and blood pressure. carbon monoxide absorbed into the blood; binds to haemoglobin to form carboxyhaemoglobin. (a) With reference to Table 6.1, explain how long term smoking may lead to (i) heart disease; n . . n . . . . n n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . .- u I n n a - - v - n n u n n u u u - u n n u u . n I u u n u c . n u n - . . . . . n u n . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . n u u n . u . . . n . n . c I n n . u . n . n . n n u . n . - u u u u n n - u n n - u - n - n . - u u n n . u u u u n u . n - n - - - - n - a - - - - - - n - u u u n - n . n - . . n u . n n u . . I . . . . u n n . . . . . . n n n n . u n I I u I u n n u n n u n u - u a - n . . . . - n . g u - I u n u u - a u - - - - n - a - - - « - - - - - - - - a - n- . . - . n n . n n . n . . . . n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . u u u . n . . n o u u . n n . u . n . n n . . u u - - - - n - - - n u - n - - - - - - n u n n u ............................................................................................................................. ..[3] (ii) chronic bronchitis. u n . n . . . n . n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - n . u u u - - u . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . - - . . . . . u u u . . . . . . . u . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. - - - - - n n u n u n . n u . . u . n n . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - . - . - . . . - . u . - - . - - . . . - . . - u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .- - - - . u - a - - u u u . . I . u u I - n - a u - u u n u n u u . u n . u I n I . . n . n u u . u n I . . u . . I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n n . . n . . . u u . . n . . u . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . n u . . . . . n n . u - . u n u n .- 2302 em 1418 141R 1 3 ~ For Examiner's u In an experiment to investigate the effect of tar on the gaseous exchange system, tar 59 collected from tobacco smoke was painted on to the skin of some laboratory animals. These . animals later developed cancerous growths on their skin. (b) Outline the effect that tar had on the skin cells of these animals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . - . . . . - - . - . . . n . . . . . . . . . I . . . n - a n n . . . - - - u - u u - - - - u u I . n u - u o u i - n u l n . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . u - . . . .- . . . . - a - u . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . - . . . . . . . - n u . . . . . n . . . . . . . - . . - . . . - - - - u . . . . . . u u I u I n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . - - - . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . - - - - n . . . . . . - - - - - . . . . . . . . . u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . u u u o - - .- 2902 801 [Turn over 7 14 Surveys of the British population show that requirements for nutrients, such as iron, show a normal distribution. Three Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) are based on this normal distribution as shown in Fig. 7.1. mean requirement in diet LRNl = lower reference nutrient intake EAR = estimated average requirement RNI = reference nutrient intake number of individuals 2.28% of population RNI EAR nutrient requirement Fig. 7.1 (a) With reference to Fig. 7.1, state the percentage of the population that has a requirement for iron between the LRNl and the RM. .................................................................................................................................... ..[1] Table 7.1 shows the DRVs for iron for males and females aged 17. Table 7.1 females males EAR RNl 8.7 11.3 (b) With reference to Fig. 7.1 and Table 7.1, explain why LRNI EAR 11.4 iron intake 6.1 /mg day‘1 (i) nutritionists recommend that people consume the RNI for nutrients, such as iron; - - . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u - - - - a . . . . . u u . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . u - - u . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . - - . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . - n u u o . . . . . . . . .- 2802 SOI For Examiner’s Use 1418 15 (ii) the DRVs for iron for females are higher than those for males. u s - u u u - u u - n u n . . . . . . . . . . n u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , u . - . - . . - . - . . . u u - . - u . u ......................................................................................................................... ..[2] People with anorexia nervosa are likely to consume much less than the LRNI for iron. (c) Suggest the likely consequences for people with anorexia nervosa of consuming less than the LRNl for iron over a long time. - - . . . . . . . . - . n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . n . - u . . . - - - u - n u . u n u n l u . n . n . . . . . . . n . . . . I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - u- . . - . . . . . . . . . - . . u . . . . . . . u n a . o I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - u - - - - u u u n u u u u u n u n . c . . . . . . . - u u n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - -- 2302 $01 For Examiner‘s Use 16 ‘ BLANK PAGE 2802 $01 1418 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 425 taught by Professor Prof.yemanga during the Spring '11 term at Bethany CA.

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2001 June QP - RECOGNISING ACHIEVEM ENT OXFORD CAMBRIDGE...

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