2002 June QP -

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Unformatted text preview: FIECOGNISING ACHIEVEMENT OXFORD CAMBRIDGE AND RSA EXAMINATIONS Advanced Subsidiary GCE BIOLOGY 2802 Human Health and Disease Monday 27 MAY 2002 Morning 1 hour Candidates answer on the question paper. Additional materials: Electronic calculator . Candidate Candldate Name Centre Number Number TIME 1 hour INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES . Write your name in the space above. . Write your Centre number and Candidate number in the boxes above. . Answer all the questions. 0 Write your answers, in blue or black ink, in the spaces on the question paper. . Read each question carefully before starting your answer. INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES . The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each - question or part question. ' FOR EXAMINER’S USE . The total number of marks for this paper is 60. Cu. Max. 0 You will be awarded marks for the quality of written communication where this is indicated in the question. . You may use an electronic calculator. 0 You are advised to show all the steps in any calculations. 12 This question paper consists of 15 printed pages and 1 blank page. (NH/CG) 524437/2 © OCR 2002 Registered Charity Number: 1066969 [Turn over 2 Answer all questions. (a) List five components of a balanced diet. BMI Table 5. ............................................ [5] The body mass index (BMI) is calculated using the following formula _ body mass in kg ’ (height in metres)2 The BMI can be sub-divided into the categories shown in Table 1.1. 1.1 BMI category below 20 underweight 20—25 acceptable overweight over 40 L~very obese obese A young woman has a body mass of 60 kg and is 1.6 metres tall. (b) (i) Use the formula above to calculate her BMl. Express your answer to the nearest whole number. ............................................................................................................................... [1] (ii) Use Table 1.1 to identify this woman’s category. ............................................................................................................................... [1] 2802 $02 For Examiner’s Use 3 I ' ‘ For . * Examiner’s . . '. . u Obesnty IS on the Increase In the UK. 59 An epidemiological study of some people born in the UK in March 1958 showed that fat children had the highest risk of becoming obese in adulthood. It also showed that most obese adults had not been fat in childhood or adolescence. (c) List three degenerative diseases or conditions that obese people are at particular risk of developing. (d) Suggest strategies that health authorities and groups such as Weight Watchers should adopt to redUCe obesity in the UK. ' ...................................................................................................................................... [2] [Total : 12] 2802 502 [Turn OVEI‘ (a) Explain the term aerobic exercise. ...................................................................................................................................... [2] A student investigated the effect of aerobic exercise on his father, using a cross country skiing machine and a digital pulse meter. He began by taking his father’s resting pulse several times during the day and calculating a mean resting pulse rate. The father completed five sessions on the skiing machine each at a different level of difficulty. The student recorded how long it took for his father’s pulse to return to its resting value after each session. The investigation was repeated a second time and mean values calculated. The results of this investigation are shown in Table 2.1. Table 2.1 level of mean maximum mean time taken to difficulty pulse rate/ beats recover/min per minute 133 4.0 (b) Explain why the student determined his father’s mean resting pulse rate before the exercise began. 2802 $02 For Examiner’s Use 5 For Examiner‘s . . . . . U (c) Explain why it took several minutes for the father’s pulse to return to Its resting value 56 after the exercise was finished. ...................................................................................................................................... [3] (d) Explain how the student could extend the investigation to find out how much exercise on the skiing machine is necessary for his father to achieve a significant improvement in aerobic fitness. [Total : 9] 2302 802 [Tu rn over 6 For Examinefs 3 Many people suffer from allergies that are unnecessary and exaggerated responses by their use immune systems to allergens. Allergens are harmless and do not cause disease. Fig. 3.1 shows the stages in an allergic response to an allergen. (Not drawn to scale.) allergen skin or epithelium lining gas exchange system allergen ' histamine Fig. 3.1 2802 $02 (a) Name two allergens. ...................................................................................................................................... [2] (b) With reference to Fig. 3.1, name (i) the cells labelled V, W and Z; V ............................................................................................................................... W .............................................................................................................................. z ........................................... [3] (ii) the molecule X. .................................................................................... ‘ [1] (c) Explain how molecule X attaches to cell Z. I ................................................................................................................................... [2] When histamine is released during an asthmatic attack, it has a very severe effect on bronchioles. (d) Describe the effect of histamine on bronchioles. ...................................................................................................................................... [3] [Total : 11] For Examiner‘s Use 2802 302 [Turn over 4 8 The first draft of the human genome was announced on 26th June 2000. The first comprehensive overview and analysis of the human genome was published in the scientific journal Nature on 15th February 2001. (a) Define the term genome. ...................................................................................................................................... [1] The following statements have been made recently about the Human Genome Project. Genomics, the science of acquiring genome knowledge and determining what genes do, will dramatically influence healthcare as further research should lead to improvements in diagnosis, prevention and treatment. BBC News Online s “"‘w’ :Wammmsm k W ‘» I am concerned that there are some who will want to use this new knowledge as a basis for discrimination. Dr Craig Venter, Celera Genomics Now we can look down the list of genes and see which one is causing the problem. Professor John Burn, Newcastle University The human genome will exist on the world’s computers for as long as we exist. Dr John Sulston, Sanger Centre, Cambridge a»: We need an international agreement that genetic information needs to be obtained by consent. Dr Arthur Cap/an, Bioethics Dept, Pennsylvania University 2802 802 For Examiners Use 9 For Examiner’s (b) Outline the implications of the Human Genome Project for human health. use Credit will be given for answers that deal with a variety of issues rather than concentrating on just one. You may refer to the statements opposite in support of any points that you make. (In this question, one mark is awarded for the quality of written communication.) .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... (Total: 9] 2802 802 [Tu Y n over 1 0 For Examiner’s . Use All tourists to areas where cholera has occurred recently are recommended to drink only water that has been boiled or treated with chlorine or iodine; drink tea or coffee made with boiled water; drink carbonated or bottled drinks with no ice; eat only foods that have been cooked thoroughly and are still hot; avoid undercooked or raw fish or shellfish; eat only cooked vegetables; avoid eating salad vegetables; avoid foods and beverages from street vendors. (a) Name the organism that causes cholera. ......................................................................................... [1] (b) Explain why tourists to areas where cholera has occurred recently are recommended to (i) be careful about what they drink; ................................................................................................................................... 2802 302 1 1 For Examiner’s There have been epidemics of cholera in some parts of Africa for the last twenty years. use (c) State the meaning of the term epidemic. ...................................................................................................................................... [1] (d) Explain why it has proved difficult to develop a vaccine to control the spread of cholera. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [3] [Total : 9] 2302 502 [Turn over 12 BLANK PAGE 2802 SO? 1 3 For Examiner’s Cigarette smoke contains tar, which is a mixture of many different chemicals. Some of these use may stimulate changes to cells in the lining of the bronchi. These changes may lead to cancerous growths in the lung. (a) (i) What name is given to chemicals that cause cancer? ............................................................................................................................... [1] (ii) Describe briefly the changes that occur in the cells lining the bronchi in response to these chemicals. ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... [3] .......................................................................................................................................... 2302 802 [Turn over 14 Studies have shown that some aspects of smoking behaviour increase the risk of developing lung cancer. Fig.6.1 shows the changes in the percentage of smokers in the male population of the UK between 1950 and 1998. - 901 key 80 aged 35-59 70- — — aged 60-74 smokers/% of 6’04 age group 50- 40- 30- ' \ 20' 10- O ‘1 l r r | l 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 year Fig. 6.1 Fig.6.2 shows the changes in mortality from lung cancer in men over the same period of time. 500 - key 450— z ’ ‘ \ \ — aged 35-59 400— ’ _ _ - / \ \ aged 60 74 y 350 — / \ / \ \ 300— / \ deaths per ‘ . 100000 250— / ofa e rou g g p 200] 150- 1004 50 -———\_ O F | I I ' 1 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 year Fig. 6.2 2802 $02 For Examiner’s Use 1 5 For Examiner’s (c) Describe and explain the changes in mortality from lung cancer among men in the UK use between 1950 and 1998. Use the information in Fig.6.1 and Fig.6.2 to help your answer. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... [4] [Total : 10] 2802 $02 16 n, Copyright Acknowledgements: Fig. 3.1 Diagram adapted from ‘Immunology at a Glance’, section 33 p.72, by J. Playfair, 6th Edition, 1966, published by Blackwell Science Ltd. Fig. 6.1 and Fig. 6.2 Taken from table A and B of the BMA web site linked to: ‘Smoking, smoking cessation, and lung cancer in the UK since 1950: combination of national statistics with two case—controlled studies‘ by Peto, Darby, Deo, Sicocks, Whitely, Doll; British Medical Journal Volume 321 August 2000, pp. 323—329. OCR has made every effort to trace the copyright holders of items used in this Question paper, but if we have inadvertently overlooked any, we apologise. 2802 302 ...
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