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CHAPTER 10 SOCIAL MOVEMENTS, SOCIAL CHANGE AND TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER OUTLINE SOCIAL MOVEMENTS Relative Deprivation Resource Mobilization Gender and Social Movements New Social Movements THEORIES OF SOCIAL CHANGE Evolutionary Theory Functionalist Theory Conflict Theory Global Social Change RESISTANCE TO SOCIAL CHANGE Economic and Cultural Factors Resistance to Technology TECHNOLOGY AND THE FUTURE Computer Technology Biotechnology Technological Accidents TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY Culture and Social Interaction Social Control Stratification and Inequality 231
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the approaches used to explain social movements. 2. Discuss the various elements associated with social movements. 3. Discuss the three major theoretical perspectives in understanding social change. 4. Discuss the global nature of social change. 5. Describe the influence of various factors that formulate resistance to social change. 6. Discuss the advancement of technology and its impact on social institutions. 7. Analyze the role of technology in shaping and transforming culture. 8. Discuss the relationship of social policy and technology on privacy and censorship CHAPTER SUMMARY Social change has been defined as significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture. Sociologists use the term social movements to refer to organized collective activities to bring about or resist fundamental change in an existing group or society. Social movements imply the existence of conflict, but we can also analyze their activities from a functionalist perspective, which views social movements as training grounds for leaders of the political establishment. Sociologists rely on two explanations, relative deprivation and resource mobilization , to understand why people mobilize. The term relative deprivation is defined as the conscious feeling of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities. It may be characterized as a scarcity rather than a lack of necessities. A relatively deprived person is dissatisfied because he or she feels downtrodden relative to some appropriate reference group. A group will not mobilize into a social movement unless there is a shared perception that its relative deprivation can be ended through collective action. Resource mobilization refers to the ways in which a social movement utilizes such resources as money, political influence, access to the media and personnel. Leadership is a central factor in mobilization of the discontented into social movements. Karl Marx recognized the importance of recruitment when he called on workers to become aware of their oppressed status. Theorists have examined social change from several disciplines and perspectives including evolutionary theory, functionalist theory and conflict theory. Evolutionary theory views society as moving in a definite direction. Early evolutionary theorists generally agreed that society was inevitably progressing to a higher state. The writing of Auguste Comte and Emile Durkheim are
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