Chapter_02 - CHAPTER 2 CULTURE AND SOCIALIZATION CHAPTER...

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CHAPTER 2 CULTURE AND SOCIALIZATION CHAPTER OUTLINE CULTURE AND SOCIETY THE SELF AND SOCIALIZATION DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURE Cooley: Looking Glass Self AROUND THE WORLD Mead: Stages of the Self Cultural Universals Mead Theory of Self Innovation Goffman: Presentation of Self Globalization, Diffusion, and SOCIALIZATION AND LIFE COURSE Technology The Life Course ELEMENTS OF CULTURE Anticipatory Socialization and Language Resocialization Norms AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION Sanctions Family Values School CULTURE AND THE DOMINANT Peer Group IDEOLOGY Mass Media and Technology CULTURAL VARIATION Workplace THE ROLE OF SOCIALIZATION The State Environment: The Impact of Isolation Heredity: The Impact of Biology 33
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34 Sociology Matters LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Define the term culture. 2. Describe the various cultural universals. 3. Define and discuss globalization. 4. Discuss the various elements of culture. 5. Discuss the various cultural variations. 6. Define ethnocentrism. 7. Define and discuss cultural relativism. 8. Discuss social policy and culture. 9. Define socialization. 10. Discuss the role of socialization. 11. Define Cooley’s looking-glass self. 12. Describe George Herbert Mead’s stages of self. 13. Discuss Erving Goffman’s dramaturgical approach and impression management. 14. Describe the sociological approaches to the self. 15. Describe the types of socialization. 16. Discuss the various agents of socialization. CHAPTER SUMMARY Culture is the totality of learned socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior. A fairly large number of people are said to constitute a society when they live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside their area, and participate in a common culture. Society is the largest form of human group and consists of people who share common heritage and culture. Members of a society learn culture and transmit it from one generation to the next. Language is a critical element of culture that sets humans apart from other species. Virtually, all societies share common practices and beliefs known as cultural universals . Some common cultural universals include athletic sports, cooking, funeral ceremonies, medicine, and sexual restrictions. Expressions of cultural universals vary from one society to another. Innovation is the process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture. Discovery involves making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality. Invention results when existing cultural items are combined into a form that did not exist before. The Globalization of cultural expressions and practices are crossing national borders through a process known as diffusion . This process results in the melding of cultural traditions (McDonaldization). Globalization is not universally welcomed in all nations. Culture consists of both
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2011 for the course SOCI 1113 taught by Professor Messer during the Summer '08 term at Oklahoma State.

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Chapter_02 - CHAPTER 2 CULTURE AND SOCIALIZATION CHAPTER...

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