Chapter_03 - CHAPTER 3 SOCIAL STRUCTURE, GROUPS AND...

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CHAPTER 3 SOCIAL STRUCTURE, GROUPS AND ORGANIZA- TIONS CHAPTER OUTLINE DEFINING AND RECONSTRUCTING UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONS REALITY Formal Organizations and Bureaucracies ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE Characteristics of Bureaucracies Statuses Bureaucracy and Organizational Culture Social Roles Voluntary Associations Groups TECHNOLOGY’S IMPACT ON THE Social Networks and Technology WORKPLACE Social Institutions Workers are Industries SOCIAL STRUCTURE IN GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Tonnies’s Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution 66
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64 Sociology Matters LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Define social interaction and social reality. 2. Identify and discuss the various elements of social structure. 3. Discuss the differences between ascribed and achieved statuses. 4. Identify and describe the various types of social roles. 5. Discuss the contribution of groups in the function of social structure. 6. Discuss the impact of social networks and technology on social relationships. 7. Analyze the importance of social institutions using the three major sociological perspectives. 8. Discuss the importance of social structure from a global perspective. 9. Discuss the sociocultural evolution approach. 10. Describe the various types of groups. 11. Discuss the association between groups and social relations. 12. Discuss formal organizations. 13. Describe the various characteristics of bureaucracy. 14. Discuss voluntary associations and their impact on social relations. 15. Describe the various effects of technology on social relations. 16. Discuss workers as industries. CHAPTER SUMMARY Social interaction refers to the ways in which people respond to one another. Social structure refers to the way society is organized into predictable relationships. Both social interaction and social structure are central to understanding how different aspects of behavior are related to one another. The ability to define social reality reflects a group’s power within a society. Reality is shaped by our perceptions, evaluations and definitions Sociologist use s tatus to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions with a large group or society. A person can hold a number of statuses at the same time. An ascribed status is assigned to a person by society and generally at birth. An achieved status is attained by a person largely through his or her own effort. A master status dominates others and thereby determines a person’s general position within society. A social role is a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status. Role conflict occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person. Role strain is a term used to de- scribe the difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations.
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Chapter 3 Social Structure, Groups, and Organizations 65 A group is any number of people with similar norms, values and expectations who regularly and
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2011 for the course SOCI 1113 taught by Professor Messer during the Summer '08 term at Oklahoma State.

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Chapter_03 - CHAPTER 3 SOCIAL STRUCTURE, GROUPS AND...

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