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CHAPTER 7 INEQUALITY BY GENDER CHAPTER OUTLINE THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF WOMEN: THE OPPRESSED GENDER MAJORITY Gender Roles Socialization Sexism and Sex Discrimination Women’s and Men’s Gender Roles Sexual Harassment Cross-Cultural Perspective The Status of Women Worldwide EXPLAINING INEQUALITY BY Women in the Workforce in the GENDER United States The Functionalist View Social Consequences of Women’s The Conflict Response Employment The Feminist Perspective THE DOUBLE JEOPARDY OF The Interactionist Perspective MINORITY WOMEN 163
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the social construction of gender roles. 2. Discuss the various sociological views in explaining stratification by gender. 3. Define sexism and discuss the effects of sex discrimination. 4. Discuss the status of women worldwide. 5. Describe the double jeopardy of minority women. CHAPTER SUMMARY Gender roles are defined as the expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females. Social behavior is socially constructed so that male-female differences are either created or exaggerated. Gender-role socialization in the United States has followed a traditional pattern in that boys must be masculine, active, aggressive, tough, daring and dominant, whereas girls must be feminine, soft, emotional, sweet, and submissive. Gender- role socialization occurs through influences of parents, older siblings, mass media, religious and educational institutions, and other adults. Sociologists have turned to the major sociological perspectives to understand stratification of gender. Functionalists maintain that gender differentiation has contributed to social stability. Some argue that in order to function most efficiently, the family requires adults who specialize in particular roles and the division of tasks between spouses is functional for the family unit. Conflict theorists see gender differences as a reflection of the subjugation of one group (women) by another group (men). A significant component of the conflict approach to gender stratification draws on the feminist perspective. The feminist perspective argues that the very discussion of women and society has been distorted by the exclusion of women from academic
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