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CHAPTER 8 SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS CHAPTER OUTLINE STUDYING SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS EDUCATION: SCHOOLS AS FORMAL Functionalist View ORGANIZATIONS Conflict View Bureaucratization of Schools Interactionist View Teachers: Employees and Instructors THE FAMILY: A GLOBAL VIEW Student Subcultures Composition: What Is the Family? GOVERNMENT: POWER AND Kinship Patterns: To Whom Are We AUTHORITY Related? Types of Authority Authority Patterns: Who Rules? Who Rules in the United States RELIGION AS A SOCIAL INSTITUTION THE ECONOMY: TODAY AND The Integrative Function of Religion TOMMORROW Religion and Social Support Economic Systems Religion and Social Change Economic Change Religion and Social Control 178
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17 8 Sociology Matters LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Identify the sociological views of social institutions. 2. Discuss the role of family. 3. Discuss the kinship and authority patterns of family. 4. Discuss the role of religion. 5. Discuss religion as a means of social control. 6. Describe the role of education. 7. Discuss the government and the types of authority. 8. Discuss the role of economy as a social institution. CHAPTER SUMMARY Social institutions are organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs. Functionalists view social institutions as necessary for the survival of society in meeting the basic needs of its members. Conflict theorists suggest social institutions maintain the privileges of the most powerful individuals and groups within a society. Interactionists emphasize that our social behavior is conditioned by the roles and statuses that we accept, the groups to which we belong and the institutions within which we function. A family can be defined as a set of people related by blood, marriage or adoption who share the primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for members of society. In the United States, family has traditionally been viewed in a very narrow set of terms: as a married couple and their unmarried children living together. The traditional family arrangement is referred to as a nuclear family . By contrast, an extended family is a family in which relatives in addition to parents and children live in the same home. Family types are relevant to various forms of marriage, which include: monogamy, serial monogamy and polygamy (which includes polygyny and polyandry ). The state of being related to others is called kinship . The United States follows the pattern of bilateral descent , which means that both sides of a person’s family are regarded as equally important. Patrilineal descent indicates that only the father’s relatives are important in determining property, inheritance and emotional ties. Conversely, in societies that favor matrilineal descent , only the mother’s relatives are significant. Authority patterns within families are often related to kinship descent. If a society expects males to dominate in all the family decision- making, it is termed a patriarchy . By contrast, in a matriarchy , women have greater authority than men. Within the egalitarian family , spouses are regarded as equals.
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