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CHAPTER 9 POPULATION, COMMUNITY, HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT CHAPTER OUTLINE DEMOGRAPHY: THE STUDY OF SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY POPULATION Social Class Malthus’s Thesis and Marx’s Response Race and Ethnicity Studying Population Today Gender Elements of Demography Age HOW DID COMMUNITIES ORIGINATE THE ENVIRONMENT: THE WORLD Early Communities AND OUR PLACE IN IT Preindustrial Cities Environmental Problems: An Overview Industrial and Postindustrial Cities Human Ecology URBANIZATION AND ITS CONSEQUENCES Conflict View of Environmental Issues Functionalist View Environmental Justice Conflict View HEALTH AND ILLNESS: SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES Functionalist Approach Conflict Approach Interactionist Approach Labeling Approach 205
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206 Sociology Matters LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Discuss population and the elements of demography. 2. Describe the origination of communities. 3. Discuss the various types of cities. 4. Discuss the sociological views concerning urbanization. 5. Discuss the sociological perspectives on health and illness. 6. Discuss the varying factors of social epidemiology and health. 7. Describe various environmental problems. 8. Discuss human ecology and environmental justice. CHAPTER SUMMARY Demography is the scientific study of population that draws on several components of population including size, composition, and territorial distribution, to understand the social consequences of population change. The Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus suggested that the world’s population was growing more rapidly than the available food supply. Malthus argued for couples to take responsibility for the number of children they choose to bear. Conversely, Karl Marx believed that capitalism was the cause of social ills, not the rising population. A census is an enumeration or counting of the population. In the United States and most other countries, the census is the primary mechanism for collecting population information. This periodic investigation is supplemented by vital statistics such as records of births, deaths, marriages and divorces that are gathered through a registration system maintained by governments. Demographic transition is a term used to describe changes in birthrates and death rates during stages of a nation’s development, which result in new patterns of vital statistics. A community may be defined as a spatial or political unit of social organization that gives people a sense of belonging. Generally, a preindustrial city only had a few thousand people living within its borders and was characterized by a relatively closed class system and limited mobility. The industrial city was based on very different principles of social organization, which included a more open class system and more mobility. A postindustrial city is a city in which global finance and the electronic flow of information dominate the economy. Human ecology
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2011 for the course SOCI 1113 taught by Professor Messer during the Summer '08 term at Oklahoma State.

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