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Class%203 - Psychopathology Psychopathology and Abnormal...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychopathology Psychopathology and Abnormal Psychology I Definition of Psychological ABNORMALITY ABNORMALITY A psychological disorder may be defined as some mental distinction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a typical or culturally expected response Definition of Psychological ABNORMALITY ABNORMALITY A psychological disorder may be defined as some mental distinction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a typical or culturally expected response Fig. 1-1, p. 3 3 Criteria used in defining Psychological Abnormality Psychological DEVIANCY DISTRESS DYSFUNCTION OR IMPAIRMENT ETIOLOGY ETIOLOGY Review: FOUR – – – – MAJOR MODELS Outside influences Biological models Psychological models Integrative models Unidimensional vs. Multidimensional Models Unidimensional Multidimensional ETIOLOGY ETIOLOGY INTEGRATIVE FACTORS – – – – – – – Genes Gene-environment interactions Physiological influences Behavioral and cognitive influences Emotional influences Cultural and interpersonal influences Developmental influences ETIOLOGY ETIOLOGY INTEGRATIVE FACTORS – Equifinality – Multifinality OUTSIDE INFLUENCES OUTSIDE BIOLOGICAL MODELS BIOLOGICAL HIPPOCRATES AND GALEN – – BRAIN DISEASE HUMORAL THEORY SYPHILIS AND SYPHILIS General Paresis General MODERN PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY PSYCHOLOGICAL MODELS PSYCHOLOGICAL MORAL THERAPY – normal interactions, comfortable and calm normal environment, nurtured relationships environment, PSYCHODYNAMIC MODEL – Intrapsychic conflict; Fixation Fixation defense mechanism; BEHAVIORAL MODEL – Core concept=learning through conditioning and Core law of effect law INTEGRATIVE MODELS INTEGRATIVE INTEGRATIVE FACTORS INTEGRATIVE GENETIC CONTRIBUTIONS – Genes – Polygenic influences – How much? < 50% GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS – Diathesis-stress model Diathesis-Stress Model Diathesis-Stress Example: Low serotonin production (Genetic Diathesis) + Low (Genetic Loss of job (Environmental Stress) → Loss Stress Depression Fig. 2-2, p. 37 INTEGRATIVE FACTORS INTEGRATIVE GENETIC CONTRIBUTIONS – Genes – Polygenetic influences – How much? < 50% GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS – Diathesis-stress model – Reciprocal gene-environment model Reciprocal Reciprocal Gene-Environment Reciprocal Example: Temperament Difficult Temperament in infancy associated Difficult with later aggression/conduct problems…but also increases risk for maltreatment/hostile interactions in childhood interactions PHYSIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES INFLUENCES THE BRAIN – Brain structure » Brain Stem » Forebrain – Communication within the brain PHYSIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES INFLUENCES CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: THE BRAIN – Brain structure » Brain Stem Hindbrain: basic functions Midbrain: movement and arousal Midbrain: movement Thalamus/Hypothalamus: broad influence on behavior » Forebrain Limbic System: Emotion Basal Ganglia: Movement Cerebral Cortex: Higher level thought/behavior – Right hemisphere: visual/perceptual Right visual/perceptual – Left hemisphere: verbal/cognitive processes PHYSIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES INFLUENCES THE BRAIN – Communication within the brain » Neurotransmitters Serotonin GABA Norepinephrine Dopamine PHYSIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES INFLUENCES PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS) – – SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: muscle control AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM » Sympathetic system Mediates body’s response to stress Prepares body for action » Parasympathetic Prepares body for rest Next Class Next Behavioral, cognitive cultural, interpersonal, Behavioral, and developmental influences… and ...
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