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Class%2012 - Health Psychology OVERVIEW Psychophysiological...

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Unformatted text preview: Health Psychology OVERVIEW Psychophysiological Model Defining Terms Psychosocial factors affecting biological processes Psychosocial and illnesses and Psychosocial Factors in Physical Illness Stress Psychosocial factors in specific illnesses Chronic Pain Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Behavioral Medicine Treatments Psychosocial Factors In Specific Illnesses Illnesses 2 Kinds of Pain Acute : Often follows injury, disappears when Often injury heals or is treated injury Chronic: Does not decrease over time, even Does after injury heals or is treated after Psychosocial Factors In Specific Illnesses Illnesses Psychological Aspects of Pain Pain: Subjective experience Subjective Pain Behaviors: Overt manifestations of “pain” Overt “pain” Role of control in pain experience Psychological characteristics prior to an accident Psychological predict who will experience chronic pain following the accident accident Examples Phanton Limb Pain Playing through the pain Pain-Related Fear and Anxiety 1. Individuals vary in their tendency to respond Individuals fearfully/anxiously to pain or expected pain fearfully/anxiously 1. Due to fear/anxiety, individuals tend to avoid Due potentially pain-producing activities potentially 1. Avoidance leads to physical deconditioning Avoidance deconditioning (muscular atrophy, loss of flexibility, etc.) 1. 1. Deconditioning increases the chances that future Deconditioning activities/movements will be painful activities/movements Vlaeyen & Linton (2000) Model Psychosocial Factors In Specific Illnesses Illnesses Social Aspects of Pain Operant Control of Pain Behaviors Operant Control Social Support – Pain Connection Psychosocial Factors In Specific Illnesses Illnesses Headache and Chronic Pain Syndromes Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Fibromyalgia Gastrointestinal Pain conditions Migraine, Tension Headaches, etc. Pain that… 1. is greater than expected from a certain injury 2. exists in the absence of an injury 3. continues beyond healing of damaged tissue Psychosocial Factors In Specific Illnesses Illnesses Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 1800s: Neurasthenia (lack of nerve strength) 1800s: (lack Definition Medically unexplained fatigue for at least 6 months • • • • Of new onset Not resulting from ongoing exertion Not alleviated by rest Reduction in previous level of activities 4 or more symptoms • • • • • • • • Subjective memory impairment Sore throat Tender lymph nodes Muscle Pain Joint Pain Headache Unrefreshing Sleep Postexertional malaise lasting more than 24 hours Psychosocial Factors In Specific Illnesses Illnesses Chronic Fatigue Syndrome What is it? Stressful environments? Changing roles of women? (most Changing women (most common in women) women Virus/immune system dysfunction? BASICS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE TREATMENTS MEDICINE Biofeedback: process of making patients process aware of specific physiological functions and developing some control over those functions functions Uses Relieve headaches by reducing tension Relieve in muscles of head and scalp in Superior to placebo Superior placebo Misuses BASICS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE TREATMENTS MEDICINE Relaxation Progressive Muscle Relaxation Diaphragmatic Breathing Develop acute awareness of tension in bodies and relax Develop tension specific muscle groups to reduce tension specific Control and regulate breathing Comprehensive stress management program Monitor stress and identify stressors Relaxation Cognitive therapy Cognitive therapy Coping strategies Coping Time management, Assertiveness BASICS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE TREATMENTS MEDICINE Prevention through Modification of Prevention Health-Risk Behaviors Health-Risk Eating habits Exercise Substance Use High-risk Sexual Behavior Many others… ...
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