Class%2026 - Developmental Disorders Developmental Overview...

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Unformatted text preview: Developmental Disorders Developmental Overview Overview ADHD Learning and Communicative Disorders Pervasive Developmental Disorders Mental Retardation Developmental Disorders Developmental Normal vs. Abnormal? ADHD ADHD Description Inattention (6 or more) Poor attention to details or careless mistakes Difficulty sustaining attention Does not seem to listen when spoken to Does Does not follow through on instructions/fails to finish tasks Difficulty organizing tasks and activities Avoids, dislikes, reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained Avoids, mental effort mental Loses things necessary for tasks Easily distracted Forgetful in daily activities ADHD ADHD Description Hyperactivity/Impulsivity (6 or more) Fidgets or squirms in seat Leaves seat in classroom and other settings Leaves seat Runs about or climbs excessively Difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly “on the go”/“driven by a motor” Talk excessively Blurts out answers before question completed Difficulty waiting turn Difficulty waiting Interrupts or intrudes on others ADHD ADHD Description Either Inattention or Hyperactivity/Impulsivity Prior to age 7 Prior age Duration at least 6 months Impairment in at least2 settings (home/school) ADHD ADHD Subtypes Prevalence Inattentive Inattentive Hyperactive Combined 4-12% of children ages 6-12 Boys 4X rate of girls Trajectory Impulsivity decreases, inattention remains Majority experience some symptoms in adulthood ADHD ADHD Causes Genetic Biological Hypofrontality Mother smoking? Psychosocial Chromosome 20 Dopaminergic System Negative responses Treatment Stimulant medications: 70% effective e.g., Ritalin, Adderall Parent training/Behavior Modification Learning Disorders Learning academic performance that is substantially below expectation given the person’s age, IQ, and education. person’s Learning Disorders Learning Descriptions Reading Disorder Discrepancy between reading achievement and age, cognitive Discrepancy ability, and educational background ability, Mathematics Disorder Discrepancy between mathematic achievement, age, cognitive Discrepancy ability, and educational background ability, Discrepancy between writing achievement, age, cognitive Discrepancy ability, and educational background ability, Learning Disorders Learning Prevalence 10-15% school-age children Reading Disorder: general population Reading Mathematics Disorder: 6% general population Expressive Writing Disorder: ? Associated with drop-out, unemployment Learning Disorders Learning Causes Genetic Brain damage/Functional brain differences Treatment Processing: teach information processing skills Cognitive: instruction in , comprehension, Cognitive: memory memory Behavioral: teach skills to compensate with problems Behavioral: associated with disorder associated Communicative Disorders Communicative Stuttering Disorder Disturbance in speech fluency 2X more common in Almost all cases before age 10 Most improve when enter school TX: regulated breathing Expressive Expressive Disorders Limited speech production across settings (but greater Limited understanding) understanding) 5X more common in boys TX: may be self-correcting Communicative Disorders Communicative Selective Persistent failure to speak in specific situations (but able to do so) < 1% prevalence; More common among girls TX: reinforce speaking, ignore other attempts at communication Tic Disorders Involuntary motor movements or vocalizations Comorbid with TX: self-monitoring and relaxation training Pervasive Developmental Disorders Disorders Impact language, socialization, and cognition ...
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