Anxiety vs. fear
Anxiety: future-oriented, perceive possible threat, low physiologic
activity, high cognitive activity, motives avoidance or preventative
Fear: present-oriented, perceived certain threat, high physiologic
activity, low cognitive activity, motives escape or defensive behaviors.
False Alarm: when you experience the alarm response of fear when
there is nothing to be afraid of.
Fight or flight response
Motivate protection or defense.
Liver releases sugar, adrenal gland releases norepinepherine,
respiration rate increases, heart rate increases,
vasodilatation/constriction, increased muscle tension, unnecessary
body systems shut down.
Anxiety vs. anxiety disorder
Everyone experiences anxiety. The differences are the amount of
distress and the amount of interference in important aspects of daily
Prevalence of anxiety disorders (study the percentage)
most prevalent class of psychological disorders over one year
period; almost 25% of the population will, at some time, have an
anxiety disorder. The most prevalent if looking at any single point of
time; over 17% of the population.
Panic disorder criteria
One or more panic attacks, at least some unexpected or uncued,
followed by at least one month of concern over having more panic
attacks. Feeling of imminent doom and urge to escape, plus four or
more of: heart palpitations, sweat, tremble, short of breath, chest
pain/tightness, tingling sensations, fear of losing control, stomach
distress, choking sensation, dizziness/lightheaded, derealization (you
ask yourself if you are having a panic attack; you consider yourself as
an observer), hot flashes/chills, fear of dying, fear of going crazy,
Prevalence: “Followed by at least one month of concern over having
more panic attacks.” 1 in 3 college students will probably have a panic
attack; only 3%-5% will develop panic disorder.
Causes: genetic contribution (specific and non-specific), biological and
psychological vulnerabilities, and experiencing a panic attack.
People who tend to attend that a physical sensation might be a panic