L2-Fall+2011 - MAE 14:650:474 Alternative Energy Systems...

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MAE 14:650:474 Alternative Energy Systems Lecture 2: Class Agenda o Transporting Electricity square4 Power transmission square4 GRID loads o Market Penetration Function 1 o Turbomachines
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MAE 14:650:474 Alternative Energy Systems Power plant generates electricity Transmission line carries electricity long distance Distribution line carries electricity to house Transporting Electricity 2 2. Within the substation are large transformers. Transformer allows electricity to be efficiently transmitted over long distances. Transformer steps up voltage for transmission Transformer on pole steps down voltage before entering house Neighborhood transformer steps down voltage 1. Electrical power is generated at power plants (thousands of volts) and moved to substations by transmission lines. 3. The voltage is stepped downed from 765 kV or so to ~10kV, and a bus can be used to split the power in multiple directions.
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GRID-Supplied Electricity o AC has at least three advantages over DC in a power distribution grid: square4 MAE 14:650:474 Alternative Energy Systems 3
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GRID-Supplied Electricity o Voltage is based on cable thickness (cost) and practical safety limits o Thickness (cost) of conducting cables is inversely proportional to the voltage of power square4 MAE 14:650:474 Alternative Energy Systems 4 o Transforming between direct currents (dc to dc) or between (ac and dc) is possible square4 o DC is less reliable and has lower availability than AC systems o DC also requires extra conversion equipment and inverter control systems instead of the inherent impedance and phase angle properties
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GRID-Supplied Electricity o Transmission with ac power results in more loss per unit of distance than with dc power o MAE 14:650:474 Alternative Energy Systems 5 o High voltage ac is easiest (less complex) and cheaper; majority of power transmission is done this way up to 350 km. o Economic facilities of high voltage dc transmission systems favor distances greater than 500 km
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GRID-Supplied Electricity o Voltage is based on cable thickness (cost) and practical safety limits o Voltage of long distance transmission is 50 – 765 kV o Local area distribution is 6 – 50 kV MAE 14:650:474 Alternative Energy Systems 6 o Supply to consumers is 100 – 500 V o Internally in equipment is 3-48 V
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GRID-Supplied Electricity – 3 phases o THREE phase power transmission is commonly used by the grid for generation, transmission and distribution of alternating current MAE 14:650:474 Alternative Energy Systems 7
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GRID-Supplied Electricity – why 3 phases o THREE phase power transmission is the only one to exhibit all of the following properties: square4 MAE 14:650:474 Alternative Energy Systems 8
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GRID Load o Electricity users want service, lighting, water, communication, etc. o LOAD on the grid is electricity consumption MAE 14:650:474 Alternative Energy Systems 9 o The success of electricity supply based on o Generation Source that is used is distinguished by its economic and physical ability to match load –
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Base Load o Minimum amount of power that a utility or
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