02 - Principles of DNA and RNA Structure Pharm...

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Pharm201 Lecture 2 2010 1 Principles of DNA and RNA Structure Pharm 201/Bioinformatics I Philip E. Bourne Department of Pharmacology, UCSD Prerequisite Reading: Structural Bioinformatics Chapters 3 Thanks to Helen Berman for many slides
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Pharm201 Lecture 2 2010 2 We start with DNA
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Pharm201 Lecture 2 2010 3 History 1946 – DNA is the main constituent of genes (Avery) 1950 – First X-ray pictures of DNA (Franklin) 1953 – DNA structure revealed (Watson and Crick) 1970 onwards - Multiple conformations and structures, initially from fibers 1973 - X-ray structure confirms double helix (Rich) 1974 - t-RNA structure (Kim) 1980 – Structure of first complete turn of B (“normal”) DNA (Dickerson)
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Pharm201 Lecture 2 2010 4 What Have we Learnt from These Structures? Hydration, ionic strength and sequence all impact the type of structure We see single stranded helices, double, triple and quadruple Alone DNA and RNA does not crystallize easily, hence strands are short – eg 10-mer (unless complexed) Contrast this to the ribosome (1FFK)
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Pharm201 Lecture 2 2010 5  NOTE:  Components  Sugar  Base  Phosphate  5’ to 3’ direction  T->U in RNA  RNA - extra –OH at 2’ of    pentose sugar  DNA - deoxyribose  Numbering  Single vs double strands  DNA more stable Voet, Donald and Judith G.   Biochemistry . John Wiley & Sons, 1990, p. 792. DNA and RNA Structure
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Pharm201 Lecture 2 2010 6  NOTE:  Pyrimadines and Purines  T->U in RNA  Names  Numbering  Bonding character  Position of hydrogen  Tautomers Neidle, Stephen.   Nucleic Acid Structure and Recognition . Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 18. The 5 Bases of DNA and RNA Purines Pyrimadines
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Pharm201 Lecture 2 2010 7  Keto vs enol (OH)  Different  hydrogen     bonding patterns Saenger, Wolfram.   Principles of Nucleic Acid Structure .
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