BCH361_F08

BCH361_F08 - Translation in Prokaryotes Translation of mRNA...

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Translation in Prokaryotes
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Translation of mRNA into the protein sequence 5’ 3’ Ribosome m-RNA growing polypeptide chain NH 2 aminoacyl-tRNA- synthethase tRNA aminoacid aminoacyl-tRNA
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Activation of amino acids
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Loading of the tRNAs with amino acids by the Aminoacyl-tRNA synthase
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Step1: a phosphodiester bond is formed between the carboxyl group of the amino acid and the phosphate group of AMP E + ATP + AA PPi + E: AA-AMP E = Enzyme AA = amino acid
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Class II enyzmes: direct formation of the final loaded aminoacyl-tRNA in one further step
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Class II enzymes Step 2: nucleophilic attack of the free electron pair at 3’OH of last nucleotide of tRNA (anedine) to the carboxyl-C of the amino acid Release of AMP
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Class II enzymes Leading to: Loaded aminoacyl-tRNA
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Class I enyzmes [aminoacyl-tRNA formation includes 2 steps (step 2 and 3)]
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Class I enzymes Step 2: nucleophilic attack of the free electron pair at 2’OH of last nucleotide of tRNA to the Carboxyl C of the amino acid Release of AMP
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Class I enzymes Leading to: !!! Amino acid bound to “wrong” position (2’ instead 3’) of the ribose!!!
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Transesterification Class I enzymes Step 3: transfer of the ester bond between the amino acid and the tRNA from 2’ to 3’ position
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Anticodon loop Recognition sites for the aminoacyl- tRNA synthases
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Extra-Arm (not present in all tRNAs) Two or more DHU (Dihydrouracil) at different positions T ψ C-Arm contains T ψ C sequence aminoacid-Arm Anticodon-Arm
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Structure of the Gln-tRNA-synthase tRNA Gln as well as ATP are bound to the enzyme The enzyme forms strong interactions with the the anticodon loop and the aminoacyl end of the t-RNA
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BCH361_F08 - Translation in Prokaryotes Translation of mRNA...

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