F08-BCH361-L14

F08-BCH361-L14 - VIRUSES some pictures of the Simian Virus...

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VIRUSES
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some pictures of the Simian Virus SV40 a: in the electron micrograph the viruses look almost spherical b/c: a closer inspection shows that they are icosahedrical
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The complete virus particle is called a virion. It only contains the genetic information packed in a capside and some proteins, which are necessary for infection
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VIRUSES can not be regarded as living organisms because they can not replicate themselves, instead they need a host cell for replication
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Many viruses contain RNA instead of DNA for the storage of their genetic information
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Many, but not all, viruses are pathogens
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Some well charaterized animal viruses Adenovirus Parvovirus Retrovirus Reovirus Human Immune Defect Virus (HIV) disease diarrhea pathogen for primates chicken pox pox ringelroeteln, arthritis leukemia infects flu animal disease skin irritation polio AIDS genetic material size of genome (1000x base pair
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There are viruses which infect Prokaryotic cells, whereas other viruses infect Eukaryotic cells Often they are very specific for their host organism
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electron microscopic picture of some viruses Bacteriophage T4 (infects the bacterium E.coli ) Tabakmosaic virus (infects tabacco) beetmosaic virus (infects beet plants)
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The mode of penetration and exit of the cells differs between viruses which infect Pro- and Eukaryotes
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Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Bacteriophage injects its DNA through the cell wall and cell membrane animal virus enters the cell by endocytosis viruses leave the cell by lysis of the cell membrane and cell wall animal viruses leave the cell in most cases by sprouting from the cell membrane (exception for example: EMBOLA) Replication Assembly virus-genome Transcription Translation
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SV40 is one of the smallest VIRUSES It only contains genes, which code for 5 proteins, three are coat proteins, the large T- protein is necessary for infection, the function of the small T-protein is still unknown
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genome of the SV40 virus
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the outcome of the infection of cells by the SV40 depends on the nature of the cells: When primate cells are infected, the virus performs a full infection cycle, leading to the production of large amounts of viruses When rodent cells are infected, the viral genome is incorporated into the host genome and the cells transform into a cancer cell
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Some retroviruses induce cancer They either contain an oncogen (Oncogen = gene that induces cancer) or transform a cellular regulator gene into an oncogen
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F08-BCH361-L14 - VIRUSES some pictures of the Simian Virus...

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