F08-BCH361-L18

F08-BCH361-L18 - Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Carbohydrate: a

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Carbohydrates
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Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Carbohydrate : : a polyhydroxyaldehyde or polyhydroxyketone, or a substance that gives these compounds on hydrolysis Monosaccharide Monosaccharide : : a carbohydrate that cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate – they have the general formula C C n H H 2n 2n O O n , where n n varies from 3 to 8 aldose aldose : : a monosaccharide containing an aldehyde group ketose ketose : : a monosaccharide containing a ketone group
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Aldoses and Ketoses
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Monosaccharides hexose heptose octose triose tetrose pentose Formula Name C 3 H 6 O 3 C 4 H 8 O 4 C 5 H 10 O 5 C 6 H 12 O 6 C 7 H 14 O 7 C 8 H 16 O 8
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There are only two trioses Dihydroxyacetone (a ketotriose) Glyceraldehyde (an aldotriose) CHO CHOH CH 2 OH 2 C=O 2
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Stereochemistry of Monosaccharides is derived from Glyceraldehyde • Glyceraldehyde contains a stereocenter and exists as a pair of enantiomers L-Glyceraldehyde D-Glyceraldehyde CHO C CHO C HO H CH 2 OH 2 H
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Fischer Projection horizontal lines represent bonds projecting forward – vertical lines represent bonds projecting to the rear – the carbon atom at the intersection of the horizontal and vertical lines is not shown D-Glyceraldehyde CHO C HO H CH 2 OH D-Glyceraldehyde convert to a Fischer projection H CHO 2
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D, L Monosaccharides D-monosaccharide monosaccharide : a monosaccharide that, when written as a Fischer projection, has the -OH on its penultimate carbon on the right L-monosaccharide monosaccharide : a monosaccharide that, when written as a Fischer projection, has the -OH on its penultimate carbon on the left L-Glyceraldehyde
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F08-BCH361-L18 - Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Carbohydrate: a

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