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F08-BCH361-L19

F08-BCH361-L19 - Polysaccharides Polysaccharides Starch is...

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Polysaccharides
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Polysaccharides Starch is used for energy storage in plants – a polymers of α -D-glucose units amylose amylose : continuous, unbranched chains of up to 4000 α -D-glucose units joined by α -1,4- glycosidic bonds
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The monomer of starch ( Amylose) is the α -anomer of glucose with an α -(1 , 4 linkage), leading to a helical structure Storage of glucose in plants
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amylopectin amylopectin: a highly branched polymer consisting of 24- 30 units of D-glucose joined by α -1,4-glycosidic bonds and branches created by α -1,6-glycosidic bonds α -1,4-glycosidic bonds α -1,6-glycosidic bonds
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In animals, glucose is stored in the form of glycogen: the main structure is the same but glycogen is more highly branched than Amylopectin
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starch granules in plants glycogen granules in an animal
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Plants contain a second polysaccharide which is the major structural component of plants: cellulose cotton and paper are made of cellulose
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Cellulose: Cellulose: the major structural component of plants, especially wood and plant fibers a linear polymer of approximately 2800 D-glucose units per molecule joined by β -1,4-glycosidic bonds fully extended conformation with alternating 180° flips of glucose units extensive intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding between chains
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cellulose fibers
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Termites and cattle can digest cellulose because of a bacteria they contain in their digestive tracks. The bacteria produce the enzyme cellulase, which can digest the β -glycosidic bond
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Plant Cell Walls – consist largely of cellulose – also contain pectin, which functions as an intercellular cementing material (pectin is a polymer of D- galacturonic acid joined by α -1,4-glycosidic bonds) – the major nonpolysaccharide of cell walls, especially in woody plants, is lignin
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Polysaccharides in insects
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Chitin: Chitin: the major structural component of the exo-skeletons of invertebrates, such as insects and crustaceans; also occurs in cell walls of algae, fungi, and yeasts composed of units of N-acetyl- β -D-glucosamine joined by β -1,4- glycosidic bonds CHO CH 2 OH NH-CCH 3 H H HO H HO OH H O N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine (insert bottom of Fig 13.23)
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The petidoglycan layer stabilizes the cell membrane of procaryotes
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Bacterial Cell Walls The peptidoglycan of a bacterial cell wall
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