F08-BCH361-L22

F08-BCH361-L22 - Glycolysis 1/47 In general ATP-producing...

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1/47 Glycolysis
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2/47 In general… ATP-producing catabolic process. Ancient, anaerobic pathway. “Investment” phase + “Pay-back” phase. – 10 enzymatic steps. –2 ATP in Æ 4 ATP out; per molecule of glucose. –Ne t ga = 2 . – 2 molecules of NAD+ are reduced to NADPH. •NAD + Æ nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. •NADPH Æ nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. – 2 molecules of pyruvate are produced.
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3/47 START END
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4/47 Reaction types. 5 important types of reactions that occur in glycolysis: 1. Phosphoryl transfer. 2. Phosphoryl shift. 3. Isomerization. Tautomerization. 4. Dehydration. –C o n d e n s a t i o n . 5. Cleavage. –A l d o l . We also see oxidation and enolization.
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5/47 Phosphorylation A phosphoryl group is transferred from ATP to a glycolytic intermediate, or from the intermediate to ADP, by a kinase. Characterized by the transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP to an alcohol. The alcohol gives up the hydrogen while ADP and an organic phosphate are yielded.
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6/47 Phosphoryl shift A phosphoryl group is shifted from one oxygen atom to another within a molecule by a mutase. Characterized by movement of a phosphoryl group from oxygen to an alcohol oxygen in the same molecule. The alcohol hydrogen is removed and binds to the formerly phosphorous-bound oxygen. The original compound's chemical nature can be extensively altered by this shift.
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7/47 Isomerization The conversion of a ketose to an aldose, or vice versa, by an isomerase. In the ketose-aldose conversion, the alcohol hydrogen is transferred to the carbonyl group, transforming the original alcohol group to a carbonyl and the original carbonyl to an alcohol. The exact reverse is true for an aldose-ketose isomerization.
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8/47 … and Tautomerization. Special case of structural isomerism. Migration of a hydrogen atom or proton, accompanied by a switch of a single bond and adjacent double bond
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9/47 Dehydration The removal of water by a dehydratase. Characterized by the removal of a water molecule from an alcohol. This yields a carbon- carbon double bond in the original molecule. Condensation. – The water is composed of an –OH from one molecule and an H from the other.
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10/47 Aldol cleavage The splitting of a carbon-carbon bond in a reversal of an aldol condensation by an aldolase. Characterized by the splitting of a carbon- carbon bond. This yields an aldehyde and a ketose.
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11/47 -73.3 OVERALL -62.8 Pyruvate kinase 10 +3.4 Enolase 9 +8.8 Phosphoglycerate mutase 8 -37.6 Phosphoglycerate kinase 7 +12.6 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 6 +7.6 Triose phosphate isomerase 5 +23.9 Aldolase 4 -14.2 Phosphofructokinase 3 +1.7 Phosphoglucoisomerase 2 -16.7 Hexokinase 1 G°' (kJ/mol) Enzyme Rxn# Free energy changes.
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12/47 First set of reactions is energetically uphill.
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2011 for the course BCH 361 taught by Professor Fromme during the Fall '08 term at ASU.

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F08-BCH361-L22 - Glycolysis 1/47 In general ATP-producing...

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