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lab 2. mass balance in a vacuum kettle

lab 2. mass balance in a vacuum kettle - the volume 3 Turn...

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Fall 2011 FDST 4050L/6050L Laboratory 2 Mass Balance in a Vacuum Kettle Objectives: 1. To be acquainted with the operation of a steam jacketed vacuum kettle 2. To practice calculation of material balance on apple juice concentration 3. To measure solids content in the raw and concentrated materials with different methods Principle of a steam jacketed vacuum kettle: (Adapted from: Karel M, Lund D. 2003.Physical principles of food preservation By Marcus Karel, Daryl B. Lund, Ebooks Corporation, 2ed edition) A steam jacketed vacuum kettle is a forced-convection evaporator. The evaporator is used extensively in various batch applications. The kettle is jacketed by a second stainless steel kettle, creating a space by which steam can flow heating the materials within. The mixing blade scratches the viscous materials attached to the wall and improves heat transfer rates. Procedures: 1. Apple juice purchased form grocery store is mixed with deionized water . 2. Add the diluted apple juice into the kettle. Take samples for solids measurement. Record
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Unformatted text preview: the volume. 3. Turn on vacuum pump. 4. Turn on the steam, adjust for temperature. Observe water condensation dropping out from the exit pipe underneath. 5. After 10 min of evaporation, turn off the steam. Release air valve. Stop the vacuum pump. 6. Remove the concentrated materials from the kettle. Measure the volume and take concentrated samples for moisture and solids concentration analysis. 7. Clean up the kettle using tap water. 8. Measure the solids concentration using a refractometer and an infrared moisture analyzer. Questions: 1. Draw a block diagram showing all the input and output. Write balance equations. 2. Calculate the solid concentration in wet basis and dry basis in apple juice before and after evaporation. 3. Calculate the total solids in the input and output fluid, and calculate the loss. 4. Briefly discuss the accuracy of the data, and possible sources of the error....
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