4391+ch+14+ANSWERS - A. Cognitive Psychology Arrives...

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A. Cognitive Psychology Arrives (Again) 1. During behaviorism’s heyday, some research occurred that was  distinctly cognitive in tone. Give two examples. (p. 465) During the 1920s through the 1940s, many articles containing research on cognitive topics including memory, perception, attention, language, and thinking were still being emphasized. One example of research with a distinctly cognitive tone is the “Stroop effect” study which examined the primacy of language when pairing words with incongruent color inks (Stroop, 1935). A second example is a study by Jenkins and Dallenbach (1924) that examined the effect of “cognitive interference on memory”; it showed that “after studying verbal materials, recall could be improved if a period of sleep (e.g. minimal interference) intervened between study and recall”. 2. What was Frederick Bartlett’s opinion about the “Ebbinghaus  tradition” in memory research? (p. 467) Frederick Bartlett questioned the usefulness of research in the “Ebbinghaus tradition”. He “discarded the use of nonsense syllables” and believed that research on memory should focus more on the characteristics of the memorizer and less on the nature of the stimulus materials. 3. What did Bartlett mean by the concept of a schema (p. 467) Bartlett also argued that “the memorizer actively organizes the material into meaningful wholes that he referred to as schemata (plural form of schema), rather than the memorizer just passively accumulating associative strength as a result of practice and repetition”. 4. Describe Bartlett’s “postcard” study and what he concluded from it.  (p. 468) To provide empirical evidence of his arguments, Bartlett developed a series of memory tasks. In his “postcard study”, he “used a series of five postcards, each with the face of a military man drawn on it. Bartlett would place the cards in front of his subjects, always arranged in the same sequence. The subjects were given ten seconds to examine each of the five cards, and when studying a particular card, the other four were face down. He then let thirty minutes pass, during which he engaged participants in conversation unrelated to the experiment. After the interval, participants were asked to describe the contents of the pictures in the same order they studied them, and they were asked a series of question about the pictures”. His conclusions were, in terms of “position” or the ability to recall the figures accurately in a sequence, he found “something similar to a modern serial position effect:
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perfect recall of the first face and better recall for the first and last than the middle”. Additionally, Bartlett found many mistakes when subjects were asked about the direction
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2011 for the course PSY 4391 taught by Professor Ginsburg during the Fall '10 term at Texas State.

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4391+ch+14+ANSWERS - A. Cognitive Psychology Arrives...

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