ArticleCharacterization of Physicians That Might BeReluctant to Propose HIV Cure-Related Clinical Trialswith Treatment Interruption to Their Patients?The ANRS-APSEC StudyChristel Protiere1,*, Lisa Fressard1, Marion Mora1, Laurence Meyer2, Marie Préau3,Marie Suzan-Monti1, Jean-Daniel Lelièvre4, Olivier Lambotte5,6,7, Bruno Spire1andthe APSEC Study Group1Aix Marseille University, INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, Sciences Economiques & Sociales de la Santé&Traitement de l’Information Médicale, 13005 Marseille, France; [email protected] (L.F.);[email protected] (M.M.); [email protected] (M.S.-M.); [email protected] (B.S.)2INSERM, U1018, UniversitéParis-Sud 11, AP-HP, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Département D’épidémiologie,94270 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; [email protected]3GRePS, Lyon 2 Université, 69676 Bron, France; [email protected]4INSERM, U955, Equipe 16, UniversitéParis Est, Facultéde médecine, Vaccine Research Institute,94000 Créteil, France; [email protected]5Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bicêtre, Service de Médecine Interne et ImmunologieClinique, INSERM, U1184, 94270 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; [email protected]6Immunology of Viral Infections and Autoimmune Diseases, UniversitéParis Sud, UMR 1184,94270 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France7CEA, DSV/iMETI, IDMIT, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses, France*Correspondence: [email protected]Received: 13 May 2020; Accepted: 17 June 2020; Published: 23 June 2020Abstract:HIV cure-related clinical trials (HCRCT) with analytical antiretroviral treatmentinterruptions (ATIs) have become unavoidable. However, the limited benefits for participants andthe risk of HIV transmission during ATI might negatively impact physicians’ motivations to proposeHCRCT to patients. Between October 2016 and March 2017, 164 French HIV physicians were askedabout their level of agreement with four viewpoints regarding HCRCT. A reluctance score was derivedfrom their answers and factors associated with reluctance identified. Results showed the highestreluctance to propose HCRCT was among physicians with a less research-orientated professionalactivity, those not informing themselves about cure trials through scientific literature, and thosewho participated in trials because their department head asked them. Physicians’ perceptions ofthe impact of HIV on their patients’ lives were also associated with their motivation to proposeHCRCT: those who considered that living with HIV means living with a secret were more motivated,while those worrying about the negative impact on person living with HIV’s professional lives weremore reluctant. Our study highlighted the need to design a HCRCT that minimizes constraints forparticipants and for continuous training programs to help physicians keep up-to-date with recentadvances in HIV cure research.