Cell_Structure_I_(Biology_of_the_Cells).docx - FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE KUALA LUMPUR MAIN CAMPUS AACB1234 BIOLOGY OF THE CELLS DIPLOMA IN FOOD SCIENCE

Cell_Structure_I_(Biology_of_the_Cells).docx - FACULTY OF...

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FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE KUALA LUMPUR MAIN CAMPUS AACB1234 BIOLOGY OF THE CELLS DIPLOMA IN FOOD SCIENCE LAB REPORT LIM WEI YIN 19WLD02888
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Cell Structure I Introduction All living things are made from one or more cells. A cell is the simplest unit of life and they are responsible for keeping an organism alive and functioning. This introduction to cells is the starting point for the area of biology that studies the various types of cells and how they work. There is a massive variety of different types of cells but they all have some common characteristics. Almost every different type of cell contains genetic material , a membrane and cytoplasm. Cells also have many other features such as organelles and ribosomes that perform specific functions. Many different organisms on the tree of life contain only one cell and are known as single-celled or unicellular organisms. Their single cell performs all the necessary functions to keep the organism alive. All species of bacteria and archaea are single-celled organisms. On the other hand, large organisms like humans are made from many trillions of cells that work together to keep the organism alive. The cell was first discovered and named by Robert Hooke in 1665. He remarked that it looked strangely similar to cellula or small rooms which monks inhabited, thus deriving the name. However what Hooke actually saw was the dead cell walls of plant cells (cork) as it appeared under the microscope. The Cell Theory states that the cell is the unit of structure, physiology, and organization in living things. The cell retains a dual existence as a distinct entity and a building block in the construction of organisms. All cells have three basic parts which is cell membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm. The function of cell membrane is to allow some materials to enter the cell but not all materials. Thus, the membrane is said to be semipermeable. Water, oxygen and carbon dioxide free pass through it, many other chemicals cannot. Cell membrane also keeps cell contents together allowing efficient coordination of its activity. Next, the nucleus is a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information processing and administrative center of the cell. This organelle has to two major functions which are storing the cell’s hereditary material or DNA and coordinating the cell’s activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction (cell division). Cytoplasm is a clear substance that is gel-like in the cell membrane but is on the
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outside of the nucleus. It contains mostly water with the addition of enzymes, organelles, salts and organic molecules. Cytoplasm supports and suspends cellular molecules and organelles. Cytoplasm helps to move things around in the cells such as hormones and dissolves any cellular waste that may occur.
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  • Spring '18
  • Nick Young
  • Bacteria, middle lamella

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