FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE KUALA LUMPUR MAIN CAMPUSAACB1234 BIOLOGY OF THE CELLS DIPLOMA IN FOOD SCIENCE LAB REPORT LIM WEI YIN 19WLD02888
Cell Structure IIntroductionAll living things are made from one or more cells. A cell is the simplest unit of life and they areresponsible for keeping an organism alive and functioning. This introduction to cells is thestarting point for the area of biology that studies the various types of cells and how they work.There is a massive variety of different types of cells but they all have some commoncharacteristics. Almost every different type of cell contains genetic material, a membrane andcytoplasm. Cells also have many other features such as organelles and ribosomes that performspecific functions. Many different organisms on the tree of life contain only one cell and areknown as single-celled or unicellular organisms. Their single cell performs all the necessaryfunctions to keep the organism alive. All species of bacteria and archaea are single-celledorganisms. On the other hand, large organisms like humans are made from many trillions of cellsthat work together to keep the organism alive. The cell was first discovered and named byRobert Hookein 1665. He remarked that it lookedstrangely similar to cellula or small rooms which monks inhabited, thus deriving the name.However what Hooke actually saw was the dead cell walls of plant cells (cork) as it appearedunder the microscope.The Cell Theory states that the cell is the unit of structure, physiology, andorganization in living things. The cell retains a dual existence as a distinct entity and a buildingblock in the construction of organisms.All cells have three basic parts which is cell membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm. The function ofcell membrane isto allow some materials to enter the cell but not all materials. Thus, themembrane is said to be semipermeable. Water, oxygen and carbon dioxide free pass through it,many other chemicals cannot. Cell membrane also keeps cell contents together allowing efficientcoordination of its activity. Next, the nucleus is a highly specialized organelle that serves as theinformation processing and administrative center of the cell. This organelle has to two majorfunctions which are storing the cell’s hereditary material or DNA and coordinating the cell’sactivities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction(cell division). Cytoplasm is a clear substance that is gel-like in the cell membrane but is on the
outside of the nucleus. It contains mostly water with the addition of enzymes, organelles, saltsand organic molecules. Cytoplasm supports and suspends cellular molecules and organelles.Cytoplasm helps to move things around in the cells such as hormones and dissolves any cellularwaste that may occur.