181 Unit I Lecture Objectives.docx - BIO 181 Human Anatomy and Physiology II Unit I Cardiovascular System Lecture Objectives and Study Guide Chapter 17

181 Unit I Lecture Objectives.docx - BIO 181 Human Anatomy...

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BIO 181 - Human Anatomy and Physiology II Unit I: Cardiovascular System Lecture Objectives and Study Guide Chapter 17: Blood 1. List and describe the three main functions of blood . Distribution/Transportation : -Transports O2 from the lungs to the body (red blood cells), and nutrients from the digestive tract to cells in the body -Transports metabolic waste, CO2 from the lungs and nitrogenous waste from the kidneys -Hormones from the endocrine organs to the target organs. Regulation: -Maintain body temperature by distributing heat though out the body and skin to promote heat loss. -Maintain normal pH balance, blood acts as the storage for bloods “alkaline reserves,” of bicarbonate ions. -Maintain adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system, blood proteins prevent fluid loss from bloodstream to tissue space, resulting in enough volume of blood the efficiently circulate blood. Protection: -Preventing blood loss, platelets and plasma proteins start clot formation, preventing blood loss. -Preventing infection, Antibodies, complement proteins, and leukocytes all fight off foreign invaders in the blood. 2. List and provide the relative amounts and the components of the following three layers formed from centrifuged blood. Plasma: 55% of blood (nonliving matrix) Buffy Coat (leukocytes and platelets): <1% of blood (living formed elements) Erythrocytes: 45% of blood (living formed elements) 3. Define hematocrit. Hematocrit is the percentage of erythrocytes in the blood, which is normally 45%. In males its normally 47% +/- and women 42% +/- 4. Describe the physical characteristics of blood. Blood is sticky, opaque with a metallic taste, color varies depending on the O2 level, High O2 scarlet red, Low O2 Dark red, pH 7.35-7.45, Average volume in males: 5-6 L, females: 4-5 L. 5. List the components of plasma. Describe the function and the relative amounts of the following: water, solutes, plasma proteins. Plasma makes up 55% of blood volume. Blood plasma is made of: Protein 8% (albumins 54%, globulins 38%, fibrinogen 7%, all others 1%) Water (approximately) 90% Other solutes 1.5% (electrolytes, nutrients, gases, regulatory substances, waste products) -electrolytes: most abundant by number that include: sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphate, sulphate and bicarbonate, they help maintain osmotic pressure and pH balance of blood.
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6. Describe the function and the relative amounts of the following plasma proteins: albumins, globulins (alpha, beta, and gamma), and fibrinogen. Plasma proteins make up about 8% by weight of plasma, all contribute to osmotic pressure and maintain water balance in the blood tissue. All have other function including transport, enzymatic, etc. Plasma Proteins : Albumins: 60% of plasma protein, produced by the liver, main contributor to osmotic pressure (pressure that helps keep water in the blood stream), attracts and holds water in bloodbut acts as a shuttle to carry molecules through the circulation.
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