ARGUMENTS AND FALLACIES

ARGUMENTS AND FALLACIES - All men are mortal. All pigs are...

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ARGUMENTS AND FALLACIES Arguments Argument – process of reasoning in which a conclusion is arrived at by means of a supporting premising or supporting premises. o Consider these two arguments: R All camels are ants. (False) All ants are birds. (False) So, all camels are birds. – False premises, valid argument. R Today is Monday. (True) Obama is President. (True) So, Napoleon lost at Waterloo. – True premises, invalid argument. R Valid – an argument in which the conclusion logically follows from the premises. Truth and Validity o There are 2 independent considerations in evaluating arguments: R (1) Are the premises true? R (2) Validity: Does the conclusion follow from the premises? o These 2 at work: R An argument may be faulty because it has a false premise. All rich people own a Cadillac. (False) Robert Redford is rich. So, Robert Redford owns a Cadillac. – False premise, valid argument. R An argument may be faulty bcuz the conclusion does not logically follow from the premises.
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Unformatted text preview: All men are mortal. All pigs are men. So, all men are pigs. o Notice that in the 1st argument, although it is not a good argument because it has a false premise, it is a valid argument. The conclusion does logically follow from those premises. That is, if someone believed the premises were true then, logically, they ought to accept the conclusion. o Notice that the 2nd argument is not a good argument because the conclusion does not follow from the premises. That is, it is not valid. However, the premises are true. o A good (sound) argument must have both true premises and be valid. R An argument that is valid & has true premises must have a true conclusion. This is because the conclusion logically follows from other ideas (the premises) which are true. R True Premises + Validity = True Conclusion...
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2011 for the course PHILOSOPHY PHI2600 taught by Professor Siegmann during the Spring '11 term at FIU.

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ARGUMENTS AND FALLACIES - All men are mortal. All pigs are...

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