Lecture15-Language - Lecture 15: Language Fall 2009 Prof....

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1 Lecture 15: Language Fall 2009 Prof. Lombrozo Overview of today’s class: 1. Language at the computational level 2. Aspects of language 3. Tidbits on syntax and pragmatics 4. Language & development (Elizabeth) Reminder: Assignment 5 due by Wed @ 10pm Midterm Review Questions How would you characterize language at the computational level? Why is language comprehension a hard problem? What are syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and phonology? What are Grice’s conversational maxims? (You don’t need to know their names, but be able to provide examples of how meaning can go beyond what is said.) What is the McGurk effect? What does it illustrate? What is phrase structure? What is the evidence for its psychological reality (e.g. Caplan, 1972)? What are garden path sentences? How do they provide evidence that parsing occurs incrementally? Reading comprehension requires drawing inferences. What are the advantages and disadvantages of forward chaining inferences and backwards chaining inferences? 15.2 15.3 Language at the computational level Language is a tool for communication Language is a tool for structuring thought Noam Chomsky Jerry Fodor
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2 15.4 Aspects of language Syntax : how words combine to form sentences – E.g. “Colorless green ideas sleep furiously” versus “Sleep ideas green furiously colorless” Semantics : meaning of words and sentences – E.g. “Colorless green ideas sleep furiously” versus “Light green plants grow quickly” Phonology : sound structure of sentences – E.g. p in “pill” versus “spill” Pragmatics : practical/communicative aspects of language – E.g. “Do you have the time?” = “What time is it?” 15.5 Evidence for phrase structure
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Lecture15-Language - Lecture 15: Language Fall 2009 Prof....

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