Lecture17-Theories - Lecture 17: Similarity & Theories Fall...

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1 Lecture 17: Similarity & Theories Fall 2009 Prof. Lombrozo Overview of today’s class: 1. Similarity for concepts & generalization 2. Problems with similarity 3. Problems with Prototype theories 4. The Theory-Theory Reminder: Assignment 6 due today @ 10pm 17.2 Similarity in concepts Categorization : involves comparing similarity of item to prototypes of different categories Typicality : depends on similarity to prototype + wings .8 + flies .7 + beak .3 + eat worms .2 + lays eggs .9 BIRD p-type + barks .8 + furry .7 + long tail .3 + chases ball .2 + live young .9 DOG p-type + wings .8 + flies .7 + beak .3 + eat worms .2 + lays eggs .9 More similar More similar 17.3 Similarity in generalization Robins have property X Penguins have property X Penguins have property X Robins have property X Typicality & generalization: Monkeys have property X All animals have property X Monkeys have property X Octopi have property X Similarity & generalization: > > “blank” property
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2 17.4 So what’s the problem with similarity? Nelson Goodman “Similarity, I submit, is insidious… Similarity, ever ready to solve philosophical problems and overcome obstacles, is a pretender, an imposter, a quack. It has, indeed, its place and its uses, but is more often found where it does not belong, professing powers it does not possess.” Seven Strictures on Similarity (1972) 17.5 Problems with similarity: Overview General problems: – Similarity depends on context Specific problems: – Categorization is not always based on similarity – Typicality is not always based on similarity – Generalization is not always based on similarity Upshot: – Similarity cannot explain concepts, categorization, and generalization – In fact, similarity judgments may result from categorization judgments, not the other way around! • E.g. poodles and golden retrievers are judged similar
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2011 for the course COG SCI 10 taught by Professor Lombrozo during the Fall '09 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Lecture17-Theories - Lecture 17: Similarity & Theories Fall...

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