Lecture18-Deduction - Lecture 18: Reasoning Fall 2009 Prof....

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1 Lecture 18: Reasoning Fall 2009 Prof. Lombrozo Overview of today’s class: 1. Deduction vs. Induction 2. Wason card selection task 3. One system or two (Rips, 2001)? 4. Mid-semester evaluations Reminder: Assignment 7 due by Thurs @ 10pm 18.2 Reasoning at the Computational level What is reasoning? – Inferring from the known to the unknown – “Going beyond the information given” What is the goal of reasoning? – To acquire information that supports adaptive behavior Why is this a hard computational problem? – Too much information: problem of deciding which information is relevant – Too little information: inferences are often underdetermined 18.3 Deduction Deduction : process of reasoning in which the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion Validity : an argument is valid if the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion – Premises do not need to be true – Depends only on form, not on content If P, then Q. P. Q Modus Ponens If P, then Q. ~Q. ~P Modus Tollens
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2 18.4 Induction Induction : process of reasoning in which the truth of the premises affects the probability of the conclusion
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Lecture18-Deduction - Lecture 18: Reasoning Fall 2009 Prof....

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