Lecture22-Expertise - Lecture 22: Expertise Fall 2009 Prof....

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1 Lecture 22: Expertise Fall 2009 Prof. Lombrozo Overview of today’s class: - The benefits of expertise - The limits of expertise - (Course themes) - Course evaluations Reminder: Paper due on Friday at 4pm! 22.2 Studying Expertise There are many kinds of expertise – Athletes, musicians, surgeons, radiologists, math wizards, chess grandmasters, jugglers, sommeliers, perfumers, chocolatiers, … Strategy : Compare experts and novices on cognitive tasks – Perception – Attention – Memory – Language – Categorization – Reasoning – Problem-solving 22.3 Key Questions Is expertise the result of general abilities, or specialized abilities? – E.g. Are chess experts better at strategy and spatial reasoning in general, or only in chess? Does expertise involve special cognitive capacities, or does it result from ‘ordinary’ cognitive capacities? – E.g. Do chess experts have a special mechanism for remembering board positions, or do they simply employ typical memory devices particularly effectively? Does expertise result from special talent or special training? – E.g. Are chess grandmasters born or made?
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2 22.4 Expertise & Perception 22.5 Expertise & Perceptual Memory 22.6 Expertise & Memory (Chase & Simon, 1973; Gobet et al., 2001)
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3 22.7 Expertise & Memory (Chase & Simon, 1973; Gobet et al., 2001) Random Board Position 22.8 Expertise & Categorization Novices “inclined planes” Experts “conservation of energy” 22.9 Characteristics of Expertise Enhanced performance is generally restricted to domain of expertise – Radiologists have better memory for abnormal x-rays, not for faces or normal x-rays – Chess experts have superior memory for real board positions, not spatial arrangements in general Enhanced performance results from effective use of basic cognitive processes
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2011 for the course COG SCI 10 taught by Professor Lombrozo during the Fall '09 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Lecture22-Expertise - Lecture 22: Expertise Fall 2009 Prof....

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