NURS 401 Exam 2 Study Guide.docx - NURS 401Exam#2 Study Guide 1 Age-related changes in the integumentary system(pg 155 and PowerPoint CHANGES EFFECTS

NURS 401 Exam 2 Study Guide.docx - NURS 401Exam#2 Study...

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NURS 401Exam #2 Study Guide 1. Age-related changes in the integumentary system (pg. 155 and PowerPoint) CHANGES EFFECTS Epidermis Melanocytes decrease Keratinocytes smaller; regeneration slower Noncancerous pigmented spots (freckles, nevi) enlarge Increased lentigine (“age” or “liver” spots) and seborrheic keratosis common Dermatosis papulosa nigra, variant of keratosis in dark skin, increases Lightening of overall skin tone; decreased protection against ultraviolet radiation, Slowed wound healing Mostly cosmetic Mostly cosmetic (Fig. 13.2) Clinically insignificant (Fig. 1 Dermis 20% loss of thickness Dermal blood vessels decrease Cross-linking increases; collagen synthesis decreases Elastin fibers thicken and fragment Decreased sebum production Skin more transparent and fragile; skin tears/bruising occur easily Skin pallor and cooler skin temperature; increased susceptibility to skin cancer; diminished dermal clearance, absorption, and immunological response Skin “gives less” under stress and tears easily Loss of stretch and elasticity; “sagging” appearance Skin becomes drier; risk for cracking and xerosis increase Hypodermis Shifting of subcutaneous fat; loss of subcutaneous tissue Reduced efficiency of eccrine glands Fewer Meissner’s/Pacinian corpuscles Decreased Langerhans cells Skinfolds on the back of the hand diminish even with substantial weight gain; more risk for injury as cushioning decreases; wrinkling and sagging of skin Temperature regulation compromised; risk for hyperthermia and hypothermia; moisture evaporates quickly; skin is drier Diminished tactile sensitivity; increased susceptibility to injury Reduces skin’s immune response Hair Diminished melanocytes; loss of hair follicles Other changes 50% of population have gray or partly gray hair Men experience hair loss in vertex, frontal, and temporal areas; by 60 years, 80% of men are substantially bald; less pronounced in women. Race, gender, sex-linked genes, and hormonal balance influence maximum amount hair one has and the changes that occur throughout life Terminal hair can occur in face and chin area in women after menopause Amount of hair increases in ears, nose, eyebrows; axillary, extremity, and pubic hair diminishes or disappears Nails Decreased circulation Fingernails and toenails thicken and change in shape and color Nails become brittle, flat, or concave rather than convex; longitudinal striations; may appear yellow or grayish with poorly defined or absent lunulae; cuticle becomes thick and wide
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Onychogryphosis (thickening and distortion of nail plate) and fungal infection (onycholysis) common but not part of normal aging 2. Common skin problems (pgs. 156-160 and PowerPoint) a. Xerosis i. extremely dry, cracked, and itchy skin often causing pruritis .
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