biology notes - ORF open reading frames able to determine...

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Lecture 15 High throughput techniques: analysis of all genes, mRNA, proteins Ability to determine the nucleotide seq. of the entire DNA. o Able to read all genetic info. DNA microarrays: enable us to detect the mRNAs. 2-D gel electrophoresis/ mass spectroscopy, detects proteins and amino acid sequence. Collection of huge amounts of data,…how do you analyze all the data? Biology has become study of the “____omes” Genome: 1920 by winkler, combination of Gene and chromosome, sum of all the info present in a cell passed out to daughter cells. a. 2 meters of DNA per cell./ 2*10^13 meters of DNA per human. b. 10^13 eukaryotic cells in body. c. Sequence of nucleotides in the DNA is ATGC d. 180 organism genome has been sequenced. e. Once genome sequence known can estimate: genome size, number of genomes, percent of coding for protein or RNA Trasncriptome Proteome: all the proteins translated in a cell “–ome” means all of something metabolome: all the metabolites in cell
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Unformatted text preview: ORF: open reading frames, able to determine where genes are present in genome. 5 questions addressed: 1. How complex are living system? a. Very complex. b. Thousands of genes, thousands of proteins or RNA c. Human has 3.2*10^9 billion base pairs. 2. What is the simplest living system? a. Microplasma-500 genes b. .6 megabases, 600,000 nucleotides 3. Relationship btwn sixe of genome and complexity of organism. a. Appears maybe yes, but there are exceptions 4. Correlation btwn # of genes in genome and complexity of organism. a. Appears yes, but there are anomalies 5. Correlation btwn % of DNA that does not encode for protein or RNA and complexity. a. Non-coding DNA increases in genome as complexity increases. 2 mysteries that arise from study of genomes: 1. How can simple animals and humans have same # of genes? Human Vs. Chimps 99% o Total # RNA molecules transcribed 2. What is non-coding DNA doing?? Transcription: 120,000 different mRNA’s...
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biology notes - ORF open reading frames able to determine...

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