Abnormal Behavior in Childhood and Adolescence This are present and emerge in early development Neurodevelopmental Disorders Include: •Autism spectrum disorder •Intellectual disability: Difference between Intellectual Disability, they involve a delay in one’s overall general functioning and cognitive ability (problem solving/processing/memory). •Specific learning disorder: has a delay in one area: i.e. reading or writing. •Communication disorders •Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Cultural Beliefs- We define what is a normal spectrum. • Help determine normal/abnormal • Children rarely label their own behavior - No kid says they are anxious, I am having problems. Adults in their lives; Caregivers/MDs/teachers notice things and point them out. Since we are labeling it and not kids, the kids struggling with depression/anxiety, it goes undiagnosed. If kids are not asking for help and aren’t getting in trouble or failing the class, it usually goes unnoticed/undiagnosed. • Cultures vary with types and threshold ADHD gets over diagnosed in children. Kids have trouble paying attention, at what point does it become problematic and abnormal. Kids cognitively do not understand/realize that they may be going through a tough time and see it as normal. Kids tend to feel guilty and blame themselves for bad situations, example; Parents divorcing. Kids are less capable to seeing the other perspective and it has nothing to do with them. Risk Factors • Genetic predisposition • Environment- Diathasi Stress model- the more genetic predisposition the less environmental stressors you need. • Family health- • Family factors- family conflicts, dynamics
• Gender Higher rates in Intellectual Disabilities/Autism/Specific Learning Disorders in Boys Anxiety and depression- Higher in girls Kids tend to exhibit different behaviors and symptoms. A depressed kid may act out with anger, anger represents their sadness and loneliness. Intellectual Disability: A generalized delay or impairment in the development of intellectual abilities.
- Spring '17