Discussion 4 - Chem 20A Discussion 4 Oct 2009 TA Guangye...

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Chem 20A Discussion 4 Oct. 2009 TA: Guangye Zhang 1. Various Representations of (1) How we got these figures See page 175-181 of Oxtoby. (2) What does 90% surfaces mean? Why don’t we use 100% surfaces? The probability of finding electrons in the orbital shapes (contours) we used is 90%. 100% is the whole space. (3) What is the meaning of ‘+’ and ‘-‘ (or Red and Blue) in the shapes of the orbital? When wave function is positive, it is +; when wave function is negative, it is -. 2. Nodes (1) Definitions of radial and angular nodes -A radial node is a spherical surface about the nucleus on which _ _ and ____ are 0. -An angular node is usually a _plane_ _ on which there is zero probability for finding the electron and across which the _ _ ___ changes sign. (2) How to calculate the number of nodes for given n and l Radial nodes=_ n- l -1_____ _ __; Angular nodes (planes)=_ __ l ____ __; Total nodes= _n-1__ (3) Examples: Calculates the Radial and angular nodes and the total nodes of the following orbitals: 1s 4s 5d 7f Radial nodes 0 3 2 3 Angular nodes 0 0 2 3 Total nodes 0 3 4 6 3. Electron Configuration (1) Difference for Energy Levels between 1-electron system and Many-electron system
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