APES Unit 5 Study Guide

APES Unit 5 Study Guide - Sheena Wadhwa Moore APES Block 4...

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Sheena Wadhwa Moore APES Block 4 23 March 2011 Unit 5 Study Guide Chapter 15 1. Gray zone- the area of suboptimal health between the state of health and the state of disease. It is a state of unbalance. 2. Pollutants are categorized by arbitrary categories. a. Heavy metals: mercury, lead, nickel, gold, etc. b. Toxic pathways: cadmium, coal, mercury c. Organic compounds: pest control, pharmaceuticals, food additives d. Persistent organic pollutants: (POPs) e. Hormonally active agents f. Radiation g. Thermal: heat pollution when heat released into water or air produces undesirable effects h. Particulates: small particles of dust i. Asbestos: minerals that take the form of small, elongated particles j. Electromagnetic fields: microwaves, computers, cellphones k. Noise pollution: unwanted sound l. Voluntary exposure: exposure to toxins and potentially harmful chemicals 3. There is controversy over synthetic organic compounds such as dioxin because they may produce a hazard for decades or hundreds of years once they are used and dispersed. 4. Biomagnification is the accumulation or increase in concentration of a substance in living tissue as it moves through a food web. This is important in toxicology because the chemical elements released are most concentrated once they reach humans. 5. Changes in abundance: arsenic, asbestos, cadmium. Changes in distribution: fluoride, particulates, sulfur oxides. Changes in birth rates: arsenic, lead, POPs. Changes in death rates: Arsenic, asbestos, beryllium. Changes in growth rates: boron, fluoride, hydrochloric acid. 6. When Paracelsus said “everything is poisonous, yet nothing is poisonous”, he meant that nothing is poisonous in a small amount but if there is too much of a substance, anything can be poisonous. 7. Dose Response is the effect of a certain chemical on an individual depends on the dose. Does Response indicate the 50% of the population will be affected with LD-50, TD-50, and ED-50. 8. The four steps of risk assessment: process of determining adverse environmental health effects to people exposed to
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pollutants and potentially toxic materials a. Identification of the hazard: testing of materials to determine whether exposure is likely to cause environmental health problems b. Does response assessment: relationship between dose of a chemical and the health effects of the people c. Exposure assessment: evaluates intensity, duration, and frequency of human exposure d. Risk characterization health risk in terms of magnitude 9. The seven deadliest infectious diseases are Legionellosis, Giardiasis, Salmonella, Malaria, Lyme Borreliosis (Lyme disease), Cryptosporidosis, Anthrax. 10. The primary cause of antibiotic resistance is genetic mutation in bacteria. The greater the duration of exposure the greater the risk of the development of resistance irrespective of the severity of the need for antibiotics. As resistance becomes more common there becomes a greater need for alternative treatments. 11.
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2011 for the course ENVIRON 100 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at UC Irvine.

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APES Unit 5 Study Guide - Sheena Wadhwa Moore APES Block 4...

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