01 Organization and Long Tracts (1)

01 Organization and Long Tracts (1) - LEARNING OBJECTIVES:...

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N-1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES: ORGANIZATION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Draw and label the parts of a neuron, and describe the general functions of each part. 2. Describe how myelin is formed, and the function of myelin. 3. List the similarities and differences among the three major types of neurons. 4. Define the functional classes of neurons. Define the terms ipsilateral, contralateral, nerve, tract, funiculus, and fasciculus. 5. Describe the functions of four types of glia. 6. Sketch the spinal cord, and label its major structures. Divide the spinal cord segments into five categories. 7. List the major divisions of the brain, and describe their general functions. 8. Describe the anatomy of the cerebral ventricles. 9. Describe the blood-brain barrier, and list substances that can or cannot cross the blood-brain barrier.
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N-2 Dr. Robert W. Blair ORGANIZATION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Reading: Widmaier et al., Human Physiology, 12 th ed., pp. 135-141, 169-175, 180-182 I. Basic Neuronal Structure A. Parts of a Neuron (Fig. 6-1, p. 136) 1. Cell body: Cell maintenance 2. Dendrites: Most synaptic contacts 3. Axon (aka nerve fiber): Process from cell body to target 4. Axon collaterals: Branches of axon 5. Terminals: Release of neurotransmitters 6. Varicosities: Release of neurotransmitters Figure 1: Parts of a neuron. B. Myelin or not (Fig. 6-2, p. 137) 1. Schwann cells (periphery) and oligodendroglia (CNS) make myelin. 2. Nodes of Ranvier are located between the myelin-forming cells. 3. The conduction velocity along the axon is accelerated by myelin; the amount of acceleration depends on the size of the axon. Figure 2: Myelin in neurons. C. Types of Neurons 1. Multipolar (like the neurons in Fig. 1 and 2): Have multiple dendritic processes. Most tract neurons and neurons with peripheral processes are multipolar. 2. Pseudounipolar (see Fig. 3): Have a single “stem” that bifurcates to make distal and proximal processes that project to the target organ and the central nervous system, respectively. This is the typical cell type in dorsal root ganglia (sensory neurons). 3. Unipolar and Bipolar: Have one or two processes, respectively. These types are mainly associated with the special senses.
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N-3 D. Functional Classes of Neurons (Fig. 6-4, p. 138) Figure 3: Classes of neurons. 1. Afferent (sensory) neurons (aka primary sensory neurons): From the body to the CNS 2. Efferent (motor) neurons: From the CNS to effectors 3. Interneurons (aka local circuit neurons): Connect neurons within CNS (text includes next category here) 4. Projection neurons: Long axons from site of origin to distant target, within CNS (this not in text) E. General Nervous System Terminology 1. Relationship of cell body to end of axon a. Ipsilateral: On the same side b. Contralateral: On the opposite side 2. Nerve: Bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system that usually contains both afferent and efferent fibers.
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2011 for the course PSYO 5016 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at The University of Oklahoma.

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01 Organization and Long Tracts (1) - LEARNING OBJECTIVES:...

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