05 Visual system - LEARNING OBJECTIVES: THE VISUAL SYSTEM...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
N-48 LEARNING OBJECTIVES: THE VISUAL SYSTEM 1. On a diagram of the eye, label the structures. 2. Define “refraction,” and list the two parts of the eye which produce refraction. Identify which of these two structures produces greater refraction. 3. Define “accommodation.” Describe how accommodation occurs. 4. List four refractive errors, and how they are corrected. 5. Define “visual acuity,” and identify the areas of the retina with the greatest and least acuity. 6. Describe the mechanism of phototransduction. 7. Describe the center/surround configuration of ganglion cell receptive fields. 8. List the structures in the visual pathway from the retina to the occipital cortex. Describe how the different portions of the visual receptive field are transmitted to the occipital cortex. List deficits that can occur with damage to parts of the visual pathways. 9. Sketch the pathway of the pupillary light reflex, and describe how this reflex works. List the characteristic deficits to this re4flex with damage to the optic nerve or oculomotor nerve. 10. Sketch the pathway for the blink reflex, and describe how this reflex works. 11. Identify the major functions of the dorsal and ventral pathways from the primary visual cortex.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
N-49 Robert W. Blair, Ph.D. THE VISUAL SYSTEM Reading: Widmaier et al., Human Physiology, 12 th ed., pp. 202-212 I. Anatomy of the Eye (Fig. 7-22, p. 203; Fig. 7-24, p. 204) A. Sclera: Tough, outermost layer of the eye B. Cornea: Transparent external surface, major refractive component, continuous with sclera C. Pupil: Opening that controls the amount of light reaching the retina D. Iris: Consists of two muscle4s, an inner circular and outer radial; pupillary diameter depends on activity of these muscles. Eye color is based on pigmentation of iris. E. Lens: Fine-tunes refraction for focusing light on retina (accommodation) F. Ciliary muscle: Sphincter-like circular muscle; controls thickness of lens during accommodation G. Zonular fibers: Connect lens to ciliary muscle. With relaxation of ciliary muscle, tension on these fibers is high, and lens is flat; vice versa for contraction of ciliary muscle. H. Choroid: Highly vascularized, between retina and sclera I. Aqueous humor B anterior chamber; Vitreous humor B posterior chamber. J. Retina: Photoreceptive area of eye K. Macula: Center area (1 mm 2 ) of retina; site on retina where light falls if one looks straight ahead L. Fovea centralis: Center of macula, only cones are found, region of the greatest acuity M. Optic disc: Entrance of the optic nerve (blind spot) Sclera Cornea Pupil Iris Lens Ciliary muscle Zonular fibers Choroid Aqueous humor Vitreous humor Macula Optic disk Fovea centralis Retina Figure 1: Anatomy of the eye.
Background image of page 2
N-50 II. Optics of Vision A. Visible spectrum: wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum of 400 nm to 700 nm (Fig. 7- 21, p. 202) B. Refraction (Fig. 7-23, p. 204) Figure 2: Refraction in the cornea.
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 14

05 Visual system - LEARNING OBJECTIVES: THE VISUAL SYSTEM...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online