06 Auditory System - LEARNING OBJECTIVES: THE AUDITORY...

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N-62 LEARNING OBJECTIVES: THE AUDITORY SYSTEM 1. On a diagram of the ear, label the structures. 2. Describe the functions of the pinna, tympanic membrane, and middle ear bones. 3. Describe the structure of the basilar membrane, and list the areas of the basilar membrane that are sensitive to low and high frequency sounds. 4. Describe the physiology of the organ of Corti. Describe the relationships among the tectorial membrane, hair cells, stereocilia, basilar membrane, and sensory neurons. 5. Describe the mechanism of depolarization and hyperpolarization of hair cells. 6. Define the characteristic frequency of sensory neurons. 7. List the structures in the main central auditory pathway. 8. Describe the mechanisms for horizontal and vertical sound localization. 9. Identify the locations of primary and secondary auditory cortices. 10. Define the two major types of hearing loss, and the treatments for each.
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N-63 Robert W. Blair, Ph.D. THE AUDITORY SYSTEM Reading: Widmaier et al., Human Physiology, 12 th ed., pp. 212-220 I. Sound (Fig. 7-36, p. 213) A. Sound is described in terms of waves with a certain frequency and amplitude. The waves consist of alternating compressed air (peak of waves) and rarefied air (troughs of waves). B. The frequency of sound waves determines the pitch of the sound you hear. The amplitude of sound waves determines the loudness of the sound. Humans with optimal hearing can detect sounds with frequencies from 20 - 20,000 Hz, although the hearing is best at frequencies of 1000 - 4000 Hz. II. Anatomy of the Ear (Fig. 7-37, p. 214) A. Outer Ear 1. Pinna (auricle): Gathers sound waves. Also helps determine location of sounds in vertical space. 2. External auditory canal: Conducts sound waves to tympanic membrane 3. Tympanic membrane (eardrum): Vibrates (moves inward and back) at the frequency of the sound wave, with the magnitude of movement related to loudness. Conducts sound waves to the middle ear, and converts sound energy to mechanical displacements . B. Middle Ear (Fig. 7-38, p. 214) 1. The auditory (eustachian) tube connects the middle ear to the pharynx, and maintains the middle ear at atmospheric pressure. Since this tube is normally closed, changes in altitude will mean that atmospheric pressure is lower or higher than middle ear pressure. These differences will cause the tympanic membrane to move either outward or inward, and can produce pain. Figure 1: Anatomy of the ear.
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N-64 2. Consists of three small bones in an air- filled space in the temporal bone. The bones are the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup). The malleus is attached to the tympanic membrane, and the stapes is attached to the oval window. The incus connects the malleus to the stapes. Figure 3:
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06 Auditory System - LEARNING OBJECTIVES: THE AUDITORY...

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