12 Limbic - LEARNING OBJECTIVES: LIMBIC SYSTEM, MOTIVATION,...

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N-118 LEARNING OBJECTIVES: LIMBIC SYSTEM, MOTIVATION, AND EMOTION 1. Define the differences between primary and secondary motivations. 2. Identify the components of the Papez circuit. 3. Describe the roles of the amygdala in behavior. 4. List the primary structures involved in the limbic system, and describe the general functions of each of these structures. 5. Identify the reward centers in the brain, and the primary neurotransmitter associated with these centers. 6. Describe the characteristics of the following disorders: Klüver-Bucy, depression, bipolar, schizophrenia, and the unique case of Phineas Gage.
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N-119 Robert W. Blair, Ph.D. LIMBIC SYSTEM, MOTIVATION, AND EMOTION Reading: Widmaier et al., Human Physiology, 12 th ed., pp. 236-241 I. Motivation and Emotion A. Motivations or desires lead to goals 1. Primary motivations are those related to biologic functions that serve the innate drives of individuals; they insure the survival of the individual and the species. Primary motivations are related to homeostatic mechanisms. a. Feeding and drinking b. Fighting and fleeing c. Temperature regulation (put on coat in winter, get in front of air conditioner in summer) d. Sex 2. Secondary motivations a. Behaviors or motivations that are derived from primary motivations, such as what to eat or drink, what clothes to put on, etc. Moods you are in, your habits or preferences, skills you have can all affect secondary motivations. b. Most of human behavior consists of secondary motivations. B. Emotions 1. Most human activity is associated with some emotional component; you don’t really do much that has a completely neutral emotional feeling. 2. Emotions have two components a. The inner emotion itself, such as fear, love, joy, anger; this is the conscious experience of emotions. b. The outer expression or motor component of the emotion; this is emotional behavior. 3. You can suppress the expression of emotion, but it is very difficult to suppress the inner emotion.
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C. Considering the complexity of motivations and emotions, one might think that there are numerous brain regions that control these facets of behavior. The limbic system is an enormously complex system that appears to control and regulate motivations and emotions. We really know very little about how these mechanisms work. II. The Limbic System (Fig. 8-11, p. 238) The limbic system controls and regulates motivations and emotions. Damage to parts of the system will alter a person’s motivations and emotions. Note that all of the regions that will be discussed in this section are part of the limbic system; it’s not just the Papez circuit. A. The Papez circuit In the 1930s a scientist named James Papez outlined the following circuit that is at the core of the limbic system. This shows the flow of information through the circuit, but does not show all of the additional inputs and outputs that connect to the central system. Cingulate cortex
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12 Limbic - LEARNING OBJECTIVES: LIMBIC SYSTEM, MOTIVATION,...

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