13 Cortex Higher Func - LEARNING OBJECTIVES: CEREBRAL...

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N-126 LEARNING OBJECTIVES: CEREBRAL CORTEX AND HIGHER FUNCTIONS 1. Define the following terms: primary sensory (or motor) cortex, unimodal sensory (or motor) association cortex, and multimodal association cortex. Identify cortical regions that comprise each of these classifications of cortex. 2. Identify the locations of the areas of cortex used in speech. Identify Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, and the arcuate fasciculus. 3. Define four aphasias: motor, sensory, conduction, and global. Describe the characteristics of these four aphasias. 4. Define working, explicit, and implicit memory. Describe types of memory that are included in each of these broad categories. 5. Describe the processes for storage and retrieval of memories. 6. Define anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Describe a lesion that can result in each of these types of amnesia.
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N-127 Robert W. Blair, Ph.D. CEREBRAL CORTEX AND HIGHER FUNCTIONS Reading: Widmaier et al., Human Physiology, 12 th ed., pp. 234-236, 241-245 I. Classification of Cortical Regions Primary sensory Primary motor Primary auditory Primary visual Unimodal visual Unimodal sensory Unimodal motor Unimodal auditory Posterior association Anterior association Figure 1: Classification scheme of lateral cerebral cortex. Primary motor Primary sensory Primary visual Unimodal visual Unimodal sensory Unimodal motor Posterior association Anterior association Limbic association area Figure 2: Classification scheme of medial cerebral cortex. A. Primary sensory cortices : Areas receiving sensory input from specific thalamic relay nuclei related to a specific sense (exception: olfaction does not relay through thalamus). 1. Somatosensory 2. Auditory 3. Visual
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N-128 B. Primary motor cortex : Area producing the final motor output once all decisions about the motor output are made. C. Unimodal sensory association cortex : Association cortex that integrates information related to a single sense. For example, for somatosensory sensation this cortex would integrate information from touch, hair, and pain receptors from widespread regions, to determine whether there is massage or being punched. 1. Somatosensory 2. Auditory 3. Visual D. Unimodal motor association cortex : The premotor and supplementary motor regions comprise the unimodal association cortex for the motor system. E. Multimodal association cortex : Cortex that “associates” or integrates multiple senses. Relate sensory input to motor output. Performs the analysis function between sensory input and motor output (e.g., think about sensory input to decide motor output). 1. Posterior association area : Located at the borders of the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes, this area integrates information from several sensory modalities to, for example, provide a complete depiction of an object (e.g., for a baby’s rattle, this would integrate the shape, color, texture, and sound of the object). 2.
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13 Cortex Higher Func - LEARNING OBJECTIVES: CEREBRAL...

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