2011 Action Potentials - C 47Dr Kennon M Garrett ACTION...

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Unformatted text preview: C - 47Dr. Kennon M. Garrett ACTION POTENTIALS Reading: Widmaier et al., Vander’s Human Physiology, 12th ed. pp. 136-141, 149-155.Behavioral Objectives 1. List the structures of a neuron and their function. 2. List sequence of events involved in the generation of an action potential. 3. Identify the ion channels responsible for specific phases of an action potential. 4. Define absolute and relative refractory periods and identify their physiological functions. 5. Identify the ion channel properties responsible for the two types of refractory periods. 5. List characteristics of an action potential. 6. Describe how an action potential is propagated down the axon. 7. Describe how myelination affects the propagation of an action potential. 8. Identify the mechanism of multiple sclerosis and how this disease alters nerve conduction. I. Functional anatomy of neuronsA. Structures (Fig. 6-1) 1. Cell body – contains the nucleus and is the site for protein synthesis C - 482. Dendrites – processes from cell body that are responsible for receiving inputs from other neurons (convergence, Fig. 6-25) 3. Axons – process from the cell body that projects and carries the electrical signal from the cell body to other cells (nerves, muscle, glands) a. Axon hillock (initial segment) b. Collaterals – branches of axons (divergence, Fig. 6-25) c. Nerve terminals – release neurotransmitter d. Synapse (Fig. 6-5) – junction between nerve and nerve, muscle or gland. C - 49e. Axonal transport (Fig 6-3) anterograde – transport of material from cell body to nerve terminal retrograde - transport of material from nerve terminal to cell body 4. Glia (neuroglia) – supporting cells. These cells make up 90% of cells in the central nervous system a. oligodendrocytes (Fig. 6-2) – insulates neurons in the central nervous systemC - 50b. Schwann cells – glia that insulate neurons in the peripheral nervous systemc. Astroglia (Fig. 6-6) – glia that regulate the composition of the extracellular fluidin the central nervous system. They remove certain neurotransmitters and maintain the ionic composition of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). They are important for stimulating the formation and maintaining the blood brain barrier formed by the capillaries in the brain....
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2011 Action Potentials - C 47Dr Kennon M Garrett ACTION...

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